Pine Mountain Settlement School
Series 12: LAND USE
Built Environment

Architect, Mary Rockwell [Hook]. Architect’s Proposed Buildings for Pine Mountain Settlement School. 1913. [hook_Panorama2_edited-1.jpg]

TAGS: architecture, built environment, buildings at Pine Mountain Settlement School, infrastructure, architects, master plans, architectural drawings, architects, Mary Rockwell Hook, Luigi Zande


The Built Environment at Pine Mountain Settlement School refers to all architectural structures as well as any other physical plant structures, such as the reservoir, bridges, stone walls, disassembled log cabins, fountains, etc. , and any structure that requires manual intervention, such as the old Swimming Pool, Root Cellar, Smoke House and the Power House. The Native American habitation near the School entrance, known as the Indian Cliff Dwelling, is also described. Maintained trails are also integral to the programs at the School and are shown in some of the maps of the School, particularly following the institution of the Environmental Education Program in 1972.

Aerial view of campus. Arthur Dodd photograph

Aerial view of campus. Arthur Dodd photograph, c. 1940. [pmss3193.jpg]



Recent hand-drawn map. North is at bottom of map.[pmss_drawn_map001.jpg]


Map drawn by Mary Rogers., c. 1950s [? ] North is at top of map. [PMSSmap2004.jpg]

Map of Pine Mountain Settlement School by Anon. , c.

Map of Pine Mountain Settlement School by Anon. [map_hand_colored_001.jpg


Map of area and routes to the School. [map_area_001.jpg]


The very early buildings on the campus were the essential institutional structures. These buildings included structures such as Old LogBig Log, and Burkham School House, used to house students and/or staff and provide office space and educational space. Throughout the history of the School, many of the buildings were re-purposed as required by changes in programs or additions to or reductions in staff.  Following the re-purposing, some of the buildings were re-named. For example, Big Log first held staff and students and later became the primary residence for Directors. Boy’s House was the primary residence for boys during the Boarding School years and later became the Library.

Dormitory space for students was of primary concern as the School grew and as it accommodated an older population during the boarding high school years. For example, during the boarding school years, the campus grew rapidly under the direction of Glyn Morris (1931 – 1941) and there was an urgent need to look at housing for the growing student and staff population. Morris evaluated programs, student population and staffing and what new construction would be necessary to accommodate the needs of the School. Two new buildings, one for girls and one for boys, were designed by Mary Rockwell [Hook,] the School architect, to meet the growing need for housing. However, they were planned just on the cusp of an economic downturn in the school finances, a re-structure in county education and the departure of Morris in 1941. Only one of the designed buildings was constructed before the Boarding School closed in 1949. That building was West Wind.

A plan was outlined and articulated by Director Morris in his report to the Board of Trustees, (c. 1940), as follows:

F. Future Building

It seems agreed by the Board and Mr. Morris that a hundred boarding pupils is about the ideal number for Pine Mountain and that there is at present no intention of expanding beyond that, feeling that this is about the right number to conserve the quality and training tradition at Pine Mountain.

It is also agreed that about twenty-five is the maximum number of boys or girls to live in one house, that a certain individual approach and a home atmosphere is apt to be sacrificed if the number exceeds that. It is, therefore, the plan to have eventually the two girls houses, each accommodating twenty-five located up on the ridge near Pole House and near the site of the present Far House. The second boy’s house to be placed in Saw Mill Hollow, thus concentrating the boys at the lower end of the school grounds, the girls at the upper, with Laurel House, School House, and Chapel, between.

It is constantly kept in mind that any new buildings must be kept simple but practical, must be in keeping with the purpose of the school, and must be appropriate to the mountain setting, yet expressive of that distinct and artistic quality we all feel here.

It is hoped that the second girl’s house can be built in 1941 thus releasing Big Log for the much needed Guest House. [This “girls house” refers to West Wind that did see completion of construction but was soon turned over to the need for a hospital.]

If the Infirmary grows in the service as it has in the past year it will have to be expanded and replaced. It is to be hoped that some funds …

“Funds” was a key word. By 1940 the campus built environment was beginning to show its age and new structures in addition to maintenance on the older structures was taking its toll on capital funding. Further, the programs at the School following the closure of the boarding school did not demand continuous residency in dormitories.

Today, as programming changes at the School, the demands on the built environment continue to change. The complex maintenance of some 23 existing structures remains of constant concern to the Board and to the Director who governs the day-to-day operation of the institution. As the built environment continues to age, the maintenance demands continue to eclipse the ability to design and build new structures that would be more accommodating of new programming. Today, the delicate dance between attention to the historical importance of the built environment of the School and the need to focus attention on current and future programming for the institution is demanding increased attention from the Director, from all staff who work at the School, and from the Board of Trustees who monitor the health and sustainability of the institution and its built environment.

Pine Mountain was placed on the National Register of Historic Landmarks in 1993.  It was an honor and it also expanded and elevated the base of concern and attention to a level of national importance. The built environment of this unique settlement school remains one of the most coherent expressions of the rural settlement idea. It also continues to be cited as one of the most important national expressions of Progressive-era rural education and medical services.  The designation of Pine Mountain Settlement School as a National Historic Landmark is an honor and one that comes with responsibility. Pine Mountain has been a good steward of this designation to the extent that its funding can keep pace with the maintenance needs. The designation of a place on the National Register of Historic Landmarks elevates not only the School’s pride but also its responsibility as an asset to the local area and to the state of Kentucky.

To view a copy of the registration and nomination form for Pine Mountain Settlement School that was submitted to the National Parks System (U.S. Department of the Interior), see: http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Text/78001337.pdf

GALLERY: Built Environment

Photographs and a brief list of central buildings and dates follows in alphabetical order.

BARN (1915) “Designed by Ethel de Long on the suggestions of three architects.” Housed dairy herd, equipment. Milk House adjacent to barn. Silo removed c.1952-3.

BIG LOG HOUSE  (1913-1914) First new building constructed. Design by Mary Rockwell Hook

BOY’S HOUSE [LIBRARY] (1919) Remodelled to house Library in 1959. Remodeled for EE Exhibition and instruction 1973. Remodeled for Gift Shop Room, 1996, again in 2017. Archive move completed in 2018. Cafe installed, 2018.

CHAPEL [CHARLOTTE HEDGES MEMORIAL CHAPEL] (1922-24) Designed by Mary Rockwell Hook with adjustments made by Luigi Zande to stone-work of an interior arch.

AUNT SAL’S CABIN  [CREECH CABIN] (1870) Original home of William and Sally Creech. Moved to the site in 1926. Moved again near campus original site and restored in 1990.

DRAPER INDUSTRIAL ARTS BUILDING  (1936)   Designed by Mary Rockwell Hook.  A multipurpose classroom building, used heavily during Boarding School years and later by the Community School. Maintenance area on lower level and wood-working shop on the west end of the building.  Now houses the large weaving studio on the third floor.

FAR HOUSE I (1917-18) Designed by Mary Rockwell Hook

FAR HOUSE II  (1997) Pre-cut log structure constructed on site of original Far House I. The Stone terrace was preserved.

FARM HOUSE  (1916-1917) Building enlarged in 1918. Student dwelling and later staff dwelling. 2017 guest lodging.

GAS PUMP  (c. 1930) Tank removal 1998.

GIRL’S INDUSTRIAL BUILDING  [PLANT CENTER and INDUSTRIAL KITCHEN] (1921 ?)  Designed by Mary Rockwell Hook [?], possibly Luigi Zande, to complement early Boy’s Industrial (destroyed by fire) Home Economics classes, Industrial training. Weaving and sewing room. Printshop. Primary school classrooms. Later EE classroom (Plant Center and E. J. Carr Colletion].

INFIRMARY [HILL HOUSE] (1921) Designed by Mary Rockwell Hook. Wings were added in 1929. Use included hospital and clinic, staff residence and 2010 guest lodging.

JUBILEE HOUSE  [DOCTOR’S COTTAGE] (1941) Built with Silver Jubilee funds for doctor residence. Staff housing.

LAUREL HOUSE I  ( 1914) Designed by Mary Rockwell Hook. Destroyed by fire in 1939. A central building for events, recreation, housing quarters for girls, staff apartments, and, importantly, a central dining hall.

LAUREL HOUSE II  (1940) Designed by Mary Rockwell Hook to replace her original Laurel House I (1914) which burned in 1940. Kitchen and central dining space, staff apartments. Co-op store. Meeting space. Later Guest lodging.

OFFICE (1919) Designed by Mary Rockwell Hook and adjusted by Ethel de Long and Luigi Zande. Bathroom added 1955.

COUNTRY COTTAGE [PRACTICE HOUSE ;MODEL HOME] (1922) Model home for boarding school girls. Staff residence. Remodeled in 1940 and bedroom and bath added c.1953]

TOOL HOUSE I & TOOL SHED II   Early Tool Shed (1914).  Tool Shed II (1951) Built by Quaker Summer Camp and staff. Replaced earlier (1914) stone tool house.

WEST WIND (1941) Designed by Mary Rockwell Hook with an original flat roof. Roofline changed in late 1940s. (1946?)  Planned as Girl’s Dormitory. Hospital from 1949 to mid-1950s. Guest lodging.

ZANDE HOUSE  (1917-1918) Designed and built by Luigi Zande, for his new wife, Ethel de Long Zande, co-founder of the School. Remodeled in 1983. Sold to the School following the death of Ethel de Long in 1928. Staff residence and later guest housing.

See Also:

043 PHOTOGRAPHS VI FN Occupations Schools Local Houses Buildings pages – Photographs from the Collections. Series VI (1913-1940), #43-47 and Series VII, #63-64.

BUILT ENVIRONMENT Architectural Planning Guide


BUILT ENVIRONMENT Inventories 1926 and 1942 Value Buildings and Equipment

BUILT ENVIRONMENT PMSS National Landmark Designation and Obligations

GLYN MORRIS Correspondence 1976 Letter to Alice Cobb – Condition of Buildings 

LAND USE Plan for Pine Mountain mid-1930s

Series 10: BUILT ENVIRONMENT (Physical Plant) PRIVATE


Aunt Sal’s Cabin Jubilee Cottage
Barn Landscaping – Grounds (see LAND USE, series 12)
Big Log Laurel House I
Boy’s House Laurel House II
Boy’s Industrial Building Lean To
Burkham School I Maintenance Shed (see Tool House II)
Burkham School II Maps
Chapel Milk House (Milkhouse)
Chicken House Office
Civilian Conservation Corps Cabin Old Log
Country Cottage (See Practice House) Open House
Creech Cottage [Creech Cabin]
Dancing Green Pole House
Doctor’s Cabin (“Little Log”) Practice House (Country Cottage)
Electrical Power House Reservoir
Far House I Root Cellar
Far House II Sawmill
Farm House Smoke House
Girl’s Industrial Building

Hayes Cabin

Swimming Pool & Bath House
Hill House (See Infirmary) Tool House I (Tool Shed I)
House in the Woods Tool House II (Tool Shed II)
Indian Cliff Dwelling West Wind
Infirmary (Hill House) Wiliam Creech Memorial Fountain
Zande House
Big Laurel Medical Settlement (See Series: 14)
Line Fork Medical Settlement (See Series: 14)
The Farm (land, fields) [See also Dancing in the Cabbage Patch IV]
The Dairy (pasture, facilities)
The Road (See also: Series 11 – Land Use)
Trails (See also: Series 11 – Land Use, Maps)
Rockwork (See also: Series 11 – Land Use)
 COMMUNITY NEAR PINE MOUNTAIN (Map and Community Residents)



Built Environment




Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY

Alt. Creator

Ann Angel Eberhardt ; Helen Hayes Wykle ;

Subject Keyword

Pine Mountain Settlement School ; built environment ; architecture ; physical plant ; Reservoir ; bridges ; stone walls ; log cabins ; fountains ; Root Cellar ; Smoke House ; Power House ; Native American habitation ; Indian Cliff Dwelling ; institutional structures ; student housing ; staff housing ; office spaces ; educational spaces ; dormitory spaces ; boarding school years ; Glyn Morris ; Mary Rockwell Hook ; architects ; planning ; Guest House ; maintenance ; board of trustees ; directors ; National Register of Historic Places ; Aunt Sal’s Cabin ; Barn ; Big Log ; Boys House ; Boys Industrial Building ; Burkham School I ; Burkham School II ; Chapel ; Chicken House ; CCC Cabin ; Country Cottage ; Creech CottagePractice House ; Dancing Green ; Doctor’s Cabin ; Little Log ; Draper Industrial Building ; Electrical Power House ; Far House I; Far House II ; Farm House ; Girls Industrial Building ; Hill House ; Infirmary ; House-in-the-Woods ; Big Laurel Medical Settlement ; Line Fork Settlement ; The Farm ; The Dairy ; The Road ; Trails ; Rockwork ; Jubilee Cottage ; Landscaping ; Laurel House ; Lean To ; Maintenance Shed ; Tool House I ; Tool House II ; Milk House ; Office ; Old Log ; Open House ; Pole House ; Sawmill ; Swimming Pool ; West Wind ; Zande House ; Pine Mountain, KY ; Harlan County, KY ;

Subject LCSH

Built Environment.
Pine Mountain Settlement School (Pine Mountain, Ky.) — History.
Harlan County (Ky.) — History.
Education — Kentucky — Harlan County.
Rural schools — Kentucky — History.
Schools — Appalachian Region, Southern.
Architecture — United States — History
National Register of Historic Places.




Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY




Collections ; text ; image ;


Original and copies of documents and correspondence in file folders in filing cabinet


Series 10: Built Environment (Physical Plant)




Is related to: Pine Mountain Settlement School Collections, Series 10: Built Environment (Physical Plant)

Coverage Temporal

1913 – 2014

Coverage Spatial

Pine Mountain, KY ; Harlan County, KY ;


Any display, publication, or public use must credit the Pine Mountain Settlement School. Copyright retained by the creators of certain items in the collection, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.




Core documents, correspondence, writings, and administrative papers about the Built Environment at Pine Mountain Settlement School ; clippings, photographs, books about the Built Environment at Pine Mountain Settlement School ;




Pine Mountain Settlement School Historical Collections. Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY.

Processed By

Helen Hayes Wykle ; Ann Angel Eberhardt ;

Last Updated

2013-09-05 hhw ; 2014-04-16 aae ; 2014-04-19 hhw ; 2015-01-27 hhw ; 2016-10-08 hhw ;



Pine Mountain Settlement School Historical Collections. Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY. Archival material.

National Historical Record Pine Mountain Settlement School

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