Pine Mountain Settlement School
Video Guide

David Siegenthaler Staff ; MULTIMEDIA VIDEO Guide

EE Staff. [left to right] Scott Matthies, Mary Rogers, Afton Garrison, [?], Cami Hamilton (Dalton), David Siegenthaler (Director). c. 1980 & 1981. [X_100_workers_2604_mod.jpg]

TAGS: Multimedia Video Guide, photographs, videos, biographies, history, events, Intervention Program,  autobiography,  environmental education program, weddings, celebrations, crafts, nursing, PMSS workers, students, homecomings, musicians, botanists, Laden Trail, dancing 


Inventoried 06/08/01

The VIDEO GUIDE provides a list, photographs and descriptions of videos produced by and about Pine Mountain Settlement School.

[NOTE: The videos are still being inventoried and evaluated. A more complete list will be available upon completion of the inventory of this format.]

This preliminary inventory of video holdings located 23 videos mainly created during the 1980s. Most of the videos are either biographical in content or are related to the history of the School and particular events that occurred at the School.

In April 2014  20 videos were transferred to DVD format by Videomaster in Asheville, NC. At the time it was believed that the DVD copy would be more portable in the digital format going forward. The 20 videos and their surrogates were then returned to Pine Mountain where they may be copied for users (pending copyright review). At present no video content from the group is available online. As copyright and intellectual property rights are determined, some selected clips from the video/DVD collection will be made available. [Largely through YouTube.]


Full transcription of the videos is badly needed and will be more easily made available when completed. If you are interested in any of the biographies and would like to transcribe the oral history, we would welcome your assistance and will provide you a copy of the video.

The following list provides details related to the preliminary group of 21 videos. Numbering includes both the new and that on the original VHS cassette casing.

When appropriate, the videos are linked to the biographies of central individuals.


1.)    Mary Rogers Interview.  (8-4-87)

Interview with Mary Rogers on Library [Boy’s House] porch. Good quality. n.d.


Mary Rogers. [X_100_workers_2630_mod]

2.)     Matthew Boggs 1987 Intervew.

Outdoors interview of Matt Boggs in 1987. Good picture but difficult to hear.


Matthew Boggs. [X_100_workers_2668_mod]

3.)     Burton Rogers, Interview in Chapel.

Interview with Burton Rogers in the Chapel. Good visual quality and sound clarity. 

4.)    Bayside Academy at Christmastime, Secret Santa, Arthur Johnson, etc.

A video capture of the Christmas program for Bayside Academy, a long-time school visitor at the School.  Spinning, weaving and Arthur Johnson program during  Christmas visit at the School. Very good quality of video with fade-in special effects . However, very little dialog though clarity of sound is good. Focus is on the Bayside Academy students who made the film of their experiences at Pine Mountain. Close shots of looms, and students working at looms. Arthur Johnson, a blind musician from Harlan, is recorded while he gives a program of songs and stories of the region. 

5.)    Afton Garrison (8-5-87)

Interview of Afton Garrison, a leader in the Environmental Education Program at Aunt Sal’s Cabin in August of 1987. Good Quality

Afton & Eurice Garrison. [X_100_workers_2614_mod]

Afton Garrison describes coming to Pine Mountain and what brought him to the environmental education program. He describes his work and the experiences he brought to the program. He describes his move to Alaska and his work with an Inuit tribe and what he learned from that experience. Many crafts, skills, observations, and conversations are remembered in this personal inventory of his career and his associations across his lifetime.

6.)    Ellen Ayers Hayes and Opal Gray (8-4-87)

Interview of the two participants in the “Intervention Program” at Pine Mountain Settlement. Includes scenes of Country Dancing.

7.)    Paul Hayes  (8-4-87)

Interview of Paul Hayes, Director of Pine Mountain Settlement School, conducted at the School. Good quality.


Paul Hayes and Ellen (“Mattie”) Ayers Hayes marriage in the PMSS Chapel on May 30, 1946. [nace_1_071b]

Paul Hayes describes his coming to Pine Mountain as a student and his return to the School as its director. He describes various celebrations at the institution, his wedding at the School, and people he knew during his many years of association. He provides a description of the School’s programs, current with the video date, and the community outreach of the institution under his direction. 

8.    Brit Wilder Interview

Interview with one of Pine Mountain Settlement School’s Boarding School students and long-time employees at the School. 

lla, Barbara and Brit Wilder, 1946. [nace_1_033a.jpg

Brit discusses coming to Pine Mountain as a student in 1925. He describes the history of the acquisition of land in eastern Kentucky by the Creech family members who were his relatives. [He was the grandson of William Creech].

Describes Louis Lyttle’s role in founding of the School and the early years in the Masonic Hall that was used as the earliest classroom for the School. He describes the sawmill and early construction. Tells of the Laurel House I fire. Tells about his school days of 4 hours school and 4 hours work. One of his jobs was driving the mule team. Tells about the basketball team, as well. His best memory was “all the time.” He describes Jack’s Gap and the Workers who loved to hike the mountains. “You didn’t have an idle minute…” at Pine Mountain. Memories of Katherine Pettit are revealing. School changed over in 1947.

Describes his marriage to Ella in 1933, when he became a coal-miner, and then returned to the School to work on the farm. Describes his daughter, Barbara, and discusses getting her into a good school and the help given by the PMSS staff. Describes Ethel de Long Zande as being like a “real good lawyer” and relates that to her testimony in court about the murder of a Worker. He describes Ethel de Long as standing for what she believed and describes Katherine Pettit as a little woman with a basket of keys and the warning “don’t step on the grass.” He describes her as a little “tetchy.” He talks about Grace Rood, a nurse, and how she was well thought of in the community. He talks about his grandfather who died at age 69. He tells about “wonderful” Ruth Gaines who came to be a secretary but the job had been taken. She was then hired as the dietitian and she stayed for 19 years. She supervised canning and cooking and garden work. He stresses the importance of Pine Mountain to the community and recommends Pine Mountain pay attention to the starvation in the mountains now and the misuse of Federal food stamps. “If they went to Pine Mountain I could trust ’em.”

Discusses celebrations at Pine Mountain, particularly Fair Day and describes dancing at May Day. He recalls Christmas and the Nativity Play. He had many years in the play but grew tired of the commitment to rehearse, as he knew all the lines. Describes Luigi Zande and his stone work and the large, long settee that Zande designed and built. Also, many of the tables in walnut were Luigi Zande’s work, according to Brit. Tells about working in mines and how that work was difficult because the mine took all their salary back in “cuts.” He describes the union need for miners and the disputes around inequality in the coal fields.

Talks about Aunt Sal, his grandmother: “She was a grand woman …. she didn’t know any strangers. She always invited people in for dinner or supper.” Describes Mary Rockwell Hook and her work. “Well, you would have to catch her still in order to describe her….” Talks about Open House and its “slab” construction that was derived from abandoned lumber. Evelyn Wells is described by Brit as a “music teacher,” “If you could find any music in anyone, she could.” Marguerite Butler? “She was an extension worker” who lived in the Log House (Cabin) 7 miles from here (Line Fork).

Zande was brought here to build the reservoir, said Brit. He had a helper who did not stay. “That Zande was one more stone layer! He was stout …” Brit visited Zande in Asheville after he left. He talks about the adopted daughter of Zande. Talks about the “fine” people in the community and how accommodating most of them were and are. “They can be some of the poorest people, but they are some of the nicest people you will find.” PMSS gave us “the cream of the earth to associate with.” He says with strong conviction, “I believe that one of the best things one can do for one’s self is to associate with people who stand up for what is right.”

He describes making maple sugar from the maple forest near his grandparent’s home [Uncle William and Aunt Sal Creech].

Good quality.

9.     Sarah Bailey Interview 

Sarah Bailey at home on her porch is interviewed regarding her time at the School as a student and a leader in craft instruction. Mixed quality. 


Sarah Bailey at spinning wheel. [X_100_workers_2667_mod.jpg]

Sarah Bailey discusses the craft programs at Pine Mountain and her personal interest and instruction of weaving, spinning, and dyeing wool for her textile arts. She discusses her early childhood, the students she taught and the Pine Mountain School and the workers who taught her when she was a student at the School.

10.   Grace Rood, Nurse Interview, 1988 

Interview of Grace Rood ,in 1988, by one of her successful student trainees.   A nurse at Pine Mountain Settlement School during both the Boarding School and Community School years, Rood describes colleagues and specific incidents and the difficulties of rural nursing. Good Quality. 

Grace Rood, nurse. [rood_042]

Grace Rood discusses her early education, how she came to Pine Mountain and her early work in the Infirmary and in the community. She describes specific incidents while serving the community and her move to the Harlan County Public Health Department. She is accompanied by Charlsie Vaughn , “one of her girls” that she trained and who became a much lauded nurse, later teaching and practicing nursing at Yale University. Rood describes the pride she took in encouraging girls at the School to go into nursing and those who went on to careers in medicine. Stella Taylor was the first of “her girls” to go into nursing. She was directly responsible for nearly a dozen girls going into the nursing profession. She describes how she came to nursing.

Is followed by Alumni Group 3 [[ John Mullins “Jack” Martin, George “Billy” Tye, ?] 1987

11.     Mary Rogers, Creech Cabin [Aunt Sal’s Cabin] (n.d.)

Mary describes her personal reflections on the development of the Environmental Education Program at the School and those who assisted her with the program’s creation during the early 1970s. Good quality but slightly difficult to hear at times.

Mary Rogers discusses the origins of the Creech Cabin, also referred to as “Aunt Sal’s Cabin” that was moved  from its original locaion to the campus and was, at the time of the interview, used as a teaching laboratory for the “Early Settlers” module of the  developing Environmental Education program. She also covers the history of the Creech family and their role as founders of the School along with Katherine Pettit and Ethel de Long [Zande] the institutional founders.

12.     Old PMSS Silent films adapted for Intervention Program Use

Created for use in the 1980’s Intervention Program at Pine Mountain, the film clips provide intimate historical views of the Early Years of the School. Especially useful in determining the presence of old films on-site in the 1980s at the School. Includes narratives by Interventioin participants under the direction of Carol Urquart. Quality is mixed but largely nicely done with footage from early films of the first two decades of the School and fragments

13.     George Wiliam Tye Interview during Homecoming

George Tye and his classmates attend an Alumni Association Reunion and remember stories during their boarding in the Boy’s House dormitory and classes and work on campus. The dialog is lively and sheds light on the camaraderie of the Boarding School Years. Good Quality but no date.

George William “Billy” Tye (1988?)

George Tye discusses his years at Pine Mountain during the Boarding School days and his assignment on various work crews. He discusses his relationship with various roommates and with classmates and his life following graduation from Pine Mountain.

14.     Homecoming 1988

14A.   Pine Mountain Homecoming – Part I (1988)

14B.  Pine Mountain Homecoming – Part II (1988)

16. Afton Garrison, Ben Begley and Mary Rogers, Environmental Education Program. (n.d.)

A mixed content Video that includes folk dancing and the gathering of alumni in Laurel House II at the  August 1988 Homecoming.

15.     Performance by Arthur Johnson, Local Musician from Harlan (n.d.)

Johnson, a blind musician, plays various instruments including the dulcimer, harmonica and guitar. He gives commentary on the instruments, particularly the dulcimer and what songs were most suited or traditional on each of the instruments. He also tells traditional Jack Tales and other mountain stories.

Performance of Arthur Johnson, a Harlan musician and performer. He gives an outside performance as part of the Environmental Education program in the summertime. Good quality. 

16.     [Video #16 is not identified]  [12A??]

          12A. Carol Urquhart, Intervention Program (n.d) [Restricted]

Carol Urquhart and her Intervention Program students narrate clips taken from an early film made at Pine Mountain that depicts life at the School and in the community during the 1920s through the 1940s. Background music is played by Urquhart and musicians and includes local tunes and ballads. Restricted material when students are represented. No permission for students represented in the video has been located. Quality of the video is poor. Clips from old film are very dark and poor but represent early attempts to document the work of the School on film. Source is unknown, but later footage is probably by Arthur Dodd for old film clips. The older film capture is historically interesting and a valuable use of the early material.

Ellen Ayers Hayes, Ben Begley, Mary Rogers, Paul Hayes, Director, and community volunteers and Environmental Education interns lead intervention students through classroom exercises and outdoor experiences that bring students into contact with the history of the institution, stream ecology, games, swimming, folk dancing, craft and woodworking and other activities offered by the School. Former Pine Mountain Settlement School students share their experiences of the early years at the School. Alonzo Turner, Carrie Day and others are featured. The former students answer questions asked by young students. Ben gives a talk in the Plant Center on medicinals derived from natural and “unnatural ingredients.” The Swamp Root “medicine” is particularly interesting. Quality of the video is very good. Restricted. No permissions for use of student images have been located.

Ben Begley inspects a medicinal created from native plants as part of the Environmental Education program. [X_100_workers_2665x_mod]

Ben Begley inspects a medicinal created from native plants as part of the Environmental Education program. [X_100_workers_2665x_mod]

12B.  Intervention Program


Mary Rogers, lower left, with Environmental Education Workers. [X_100_workers_2603b_mod]

Begins with Afton Garrison imitating bird calls including Bob White, Red Shoulder Hawk, Red Tail Hawk, Phoebe and Cardinal. Describes the territorial habits of birds. Describes teaching children about wildlife, a particular chipmunk incident and a rare sighting of a red fox while children were on the Pine Mountain trails. The three discuss the founding years of the Environmental Education Program and planning for the curriculum of the program. Each

discusses the classes they specialized in and the development of their class. Ben describes Native Americans, Stream Ecology, and Wild Flower classes as his specialty, while Afton describes Wild Flowers, Trees, Birds and Native Americans as his areas of expertise.

Mary describes what she didn’t teach … Stream Ecology and “I don’t hike to the top of the mountain.” She also pointed out that she didn’t have to look far to find something that wasn’t being done that ought to be done … strip mining … the danger of turning the watersheds into deserts. She expanded the course work to include global issues like ocean pollution and pesticides. “Children need to know that we are destroying our environment…by money, greed and Ignorance. She noted that Pine Mountain has some 800 acres that can be used to educate. Ben said there was hope if we could “get that [environmental awareness] into their little noggins… maybe ….” Afton remembered some of the interns such as Steve McKee, Marc Dalton and others who went on to become leaders in their field.

Also discussed in the interview is the early rationale for the development of the environmental program and the suitability of Pine Mountain for such a school. Some of the cultural programmings are also discussed, such as spinning, weaving, music, and dance. The program strives to keep those traditions alive that are an integral part of the people and the mountains of the Southern Appalachians.

Ben: “We need to open their eyes.” Mary: We need to teach them “How plants smell.” Afton: “Indians have great senses, eyes, ears, nose ….”

They described a night hike and its intent to show how helpless man is without light …”Pick up your feet!” Ben: “I learn something every day!”

“The program serves all age groups. One needs to step from higher level to the beginner and learn how to say the important things in a different way. You have to be flexible.” Described a program that serves ages from 6 to 67 years of age.

The trio described the beginning in 1972 just after Earth Day when Congress had passed a Bill regarding environmental education. They noted that it did not change things immediately and that decades later the country is still struggling. All agreed that the growing population signals growing environmental problems.

When asked what the greatest strengths of the Environmental Education program are, the three agreed that the place, the great classroom of 800+ acres, the Indian Cliff and the pioneer cabin of Uncle William and Aunt Sal. Also cited was the latitude of the region that supports some of the richest temperate climate ecology in the United States. They described the large variety of life forms as important to the program.

When asked what were the program’s greatest weaknesses, they replied that it was the program’s inability to reach more local schools. Afton noted that getting local schools excited about the mountains they live in is difficult. “It is hard to engage them.” Going to the various schools helps and must be done each year to keep the interest up and combat the rapid turnover of principals and teachers in the local schools. Too many schools wait too late to sign up for the program and when they finally decide to come, all the slots are full. Scheduling is a problem. They noted that the city children are “more deprived” [of environmental awareness]. Mary recalled Uncle William’s quote that he “hoped Pine Mountain would be of benefit to those across the country and across the seas ….” They all agreed that the mountain culture had much to teach and to give to others, especially the “rough culture of the city.” “I wish we could balance it better,” said Mary. All noted that students get more from a 1-week visit than from a 2-day visit. Trustees “sat on us” to love the groups from further away.

Ben described his long love of the out-of-doors. “Being a Botanist, now, I can go out the front door. PMSS has given me a great deal of sanctification for even the one child who discovers …changing children’s lives, the enthusiasm of kids, camaraderie of kids …” Afton seconded this: “…most enjoyable work I’ve done in my life. The children will never forget … Seeing the kids light up … We look forward to tomorrow to see if we can turn it on again.”

17.  Arthur Dodd, Georgia Dodd and Carrie Day (n.d.)

Arthur Dodd, Principal during the Boarding School days, interviews Carrie Day a former student during the Boarding School years. Carrie Day had just recently published her personal reflections on the Pine Mountain experience in a brief booklet. 


Arthur Dodd, with wife Georgia and daughters. [X_100_workers_2603f_mod]

The Dodds discussed the PMSS educational program, the Octet, days at Ganado Mission Navaho school in Arizona, world travels and their two children and grandchildren.

Carrie Day, who was one of the first students who came to Pine Mountain, reads her poem and from her published autobiography that covers the years from c. 1918 until c. 1925. Discusses Ruth Gaines, Ethel de Long and Luigi Zande. She describes the School as the “best school in Kentucky.” She reads long sections from her autobiography. [Audio quality is poor for Carrie Day.]

18.  Laden Trail, Fall Color, PMSS in Winter [Paul Hayes]

Only occasional narration throughout. The emphasis is on the scenery. Good views of Jack’s Gap and a lengthy video of the drive over the Laden Trail in Fall color and snow. Short section of the campus in winter with a heavy snowfall and of Spring with flowers in bloom. Various buildings on campus are highlighted and described by narrator, Paul Hayes, Executive Director of Pine Mountain Settlement School, at the time the recording was made.

19.     Paul Hayes, Director, Narration of a Drive on Laden Trail in Fall

Fall Scenes, Laden Trail, campus buildings, and other campus scenes. Quality is mixed  but largely very good for video format.

20.     “PMSS” Footage 

Unable to play. Content unknown. 

20.  Pine Mountain Settlement School (Fall 1938 – copy).

Contains English country dancing, Big Log girls, swimming pool. Previously owned by August Angel & donated by his daughter, Ann Angel Eberhardt, in 2017. Possibly part of the film described in the October 1938 issue of The Pine Cone:


Since the opening of school this year Mr. (Glyn) Morris and Mr. (Everett) Wilson have been taking motion pictures of school activities as they have appeared. These shots will culminate into an organized moving picture in the near future.

Many shots have already been taken of English Country dancing, the Big Log girls, the filling of the silo, and boys and girls swimming in the pool.

When this film is released the history of Pine Mountain will be told on the screen.

21.  Buckhorn Children’s Center [not PMSS. Published by Buckhorn Center] (n.d.)

Promotional material for Buckhorn Children’s Center. Describes the new programs at the school. Collected by Pine Mountain and placed in the archive.

21.     Buckhorn Children’s Center

Publicity video for the nearby settlement school. 

22.     Video Documentary on Learning Disabilities [Not PMSS]

Not PMSS production. [In other box?]

23.    PMSS and Surroundings

Home video footage of Pine Mountain Settlement and surroundings [n.d.]. Good quality and no narration. 


21.  Pine Mountain Preserving the Future

22.  Inside Kentucky Schools, February 12, 2005.

23.  Diocese of Lexington. Reading Camp, 2002.

24.  Learning Disabilities Workshop?

25.  Nativity (Christmas) Play Home Movie

26.  Pine Mountain Settlement School Views / Footage

27.  Burton Rogers, KET Settlement School Interview

28.  Last Gas. Hand-pump at Pine Mountain Settlement School

29.  Profit the Earth, Saving Nature for Earth’s Sake

30.  PMSS and Surrounding footage

31.  Paul Hayes. KET Settlement School Interview 6/21/1995

32.  Morgan McClure

33.  The Bailey Family & Nolan Family

34.  Pine Mountain Settlement School film of PMSS activities, made in 1938 by Glyn Morris and E.K. Wilson.

See Also: