LAND USE Pine Mountain Hemlock Survey 2000

Pine Mountain Settlement School
Series 12: LAND USE
LAND USE Pine Mountain Hemlock Survey 2000

LAND USE Pine Mountain Hemlock Survey 2000

LAND USE  Pine Mountain Hemlock Survey 2000: View of the lush hemlock trees and their boughs burdened by snow, that abounded in the forests surrounding Pine Mountain in the early decades of the School.
Maya Sudo Album: Hemlocks and stones covered by snow. [sudo_album_035b_mod.jpg]

TAGS: Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Survey, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Woolly Adelgid, grant proposals, Woolly Adelgid Conference, Northern Hemlock (tsuga canadensis), Mixed Mesophytic Forest, U.S.G.S. maps of Nolansburg Quadrangle in Kentucky

The following Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Survey of the forest surrounding the Pine Mountain Settlement School was conducted in 2000. An effort was made to receive grant funding to support a Wolly Adelgid intervention program on the School’s property using the survey information. The survey and supplemental documents provide a rich overview of the density and condition of the hemlock forest surrounding the School at the turn of the 21st century. At that time the forest was one of the largest and healthiest stands of hemlock within the State and contained some of the largest of the Northern Hemlock (tsuga canadensis) in Kentucky making it an excellent survey subject.

LAND USE Pine Mountain Hemlock Survey 2000:


  • An intensive survey of Northern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) densities, number of individual trees in size class and degree of Adelgid infestation was conducted at Pine Mountain Settlement School in late June and early July, 2008.
  • Hemlock trees were counted and designated in size class (Diameter Breast Height – dbh). The survey areas included all areas of the campus where hemlocks are present.
  • Enclosed is the data generated by the survey, the ecological significance of each area, the ecological importance of hemlocks in each area and recommendations of priority status for each area;
  • Maps are included delineating the areas surveyed. All maps are U.S.G.S., Nolansburg Quadrangle, Kentucky. These maps have been enlarged for easier viewing.
  • The criteria for designation of priority rating is included.
  • 4,986 hemlocks were counted during this survey. Not all trees were infested with the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, but adelgids were found in all survey areas.
  • Due to the size of some of the trees, it was not ascertainable as to whether the Adelgid was preset or not.
  • Approximately 10-15% of hemlock trees were not counted due to inaccessibility, relative scarcity of hemlocks in certain habitats, and human error.


  • Pine Mountain Settlement School, a National Historic Landmark, is located in Harlan County, Kentucky, on the north face of the Pine Mountain.
  • The forest cover is a prime example of a Mixed Mesophytic Forest with a great diversity of plant and animal species. The Mixed Mesophytic Forest is a complex and ancient forest dating to the last glacial period of the Pleistocene. The northern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is a relic species of tree dating from this period and is one of the dominant species of the Mixed Mesophytic Forest.
  • Hemlocks dominate the lower slopes of Pine Mountain Settlement School in some areas, (Hemlock Coves), and constitutes nearly 90% of tree species.
  • The Hemlock Woolly Adelgid was first discovered at Pine Mountain in June of 2006, in a very limited area along Split Rock Trail. A thorough inventory of Adelgid infestations on hemlocks throughout the campus was conducted and others were present elsewhere.
  • In the following two years the Adelgid has been found throughout the hemlock population at the Settlement School.
  • On approximately 150 acres of the Settlement School’s property, the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid had been identified.
  • It is essential that treatment of the Adelgid infestation be initiated and control measures completed. Therefore, Pine Mountain Settlement School is requesting $10,000 in grant funds to help us meet our needs.
  • Presently, Pine Mountain Settlement School has neither chemicals nor injectors.
  • PMSS can allocate staff as necessary to assist in treatment. Up to seven staff members can be available. In addition, volunteers can assist in non-technical matters, e.g. paperwork, carrying water, labeling trees, etc.).


GALLERY: LAND USE Pine Mountain Hemlock Survey 2000