KATHERINE PETTIT

Pine Mountain Settlement School
Series 07: Directors
Series 09: Staff/Personnel

KATHERINE PETTIT

Katherine Pettit (b. 1868, d. 1936)
Administrative Staff: Co-Founder & Co-Director 1913 – 1930


TAGS: Katherine Rhoda Pettit ; Katherine Pettit ; Clara Mason Pettit ; Benjamin F. Pettit ; Pine Mountain Settlement School ; founders ; Ethel de Long Zande ; Ethel de Long ; Mary Rockwell Hook ;  weaving ; Kentucky Women’s Clubs ; State Federation of Women’s Clubs ; Hindman Settlement School ; Rev. Lewis Lyttle ; William Creech ; Sally Creech ; Harriet Butler ; Eve Newman ; Emma Lucy Braun ; forests ; old-growth forests ; Kentucky Primeval Forest League ; environmentalism ; Women’s Christian Temperance Union ; WCTU ; Mexico ; South America ;


pettit_katherine

Katherine Pettit in Big Log. [pettit_katherine.jpg]

Katherine Pettit was born February 23, 1868, the child of Clara Mason Pettit and Benjamin F. Pettit. Benjamin owned an expansive, profitable farm in Lexington (Fayette County), located in the Bluegrass region of Kentucky.

Miss Pettit attended schools in Louisville and Lexington, including two years (1885 – 1887) at Sayre School in Lexington, then known as the Sayre Female Institute. After involvement with the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union and the State Federation of Women’s Clubs, she left both to advance her career as a progressive educator.

Her past associations with the women’s clubs served her well. Not only did they inspire her to find ways to ease the hardships that Kentucky mountain women endured, but provided her with a network of contacts for fundraising and sponsorship. She also had knowledge of Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr, who co-founded Hull House, an urban social settlement house in Chicago, and who in turn were influenced by the Settlement Movement in England. Throughout her future social work, Miss Pettit borrowed from Hull House principles of “social justice, fairness, tolerance, respect, equal opportunity, civic responsibility and hope for every individual, family and community.”

From 1899 to 1901, Miss Pettit and May Stone, a Wellesley (MA) College graduate from Louisville, volunteered to work with educational programs that were set up in tents each summer by the Kentucky Federation of Women’s Clubs, at Camp Industrial (Knott County), Camp Cedar Grove in Hazard (Perry County), and in Sassafras Social Settlement (Knott County).

During their three summers at the camps, the two women saw a great need to improve the living conditions, education, and health of the people in eastern Kentucky mountains. According to Rhonda England in her paper, “Bringing Modern Notions of Childhood and Motherhood to Preindustrial Appalachia: Katherine Pettit and May Stone, 1899 – 1901”:

While the women found many of the older, more traditional aspects of Appalachian culture preferable to the changing values in the more industrialized areas, they also found many elements in the culture that were backward, especially as they affected health and education. In order to help the mountaineers become self-sufficient, the women believed they should teach the people to make the best use of what they had.

By 1902, they raised enough money and, under the auspices of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union, established the WCTU Settlement School in Hindman, KY. In 1915 the School was incorporated and renamed the Hindman Settlement School.

In 1911, The Reverend Lewis F. Lyttle, an old friend and supporter, introduced Miss Pettit to a local mountaineer, “Uncle William” Creech Sr., who wished to donate land in a remote area of Harlan County for a new school that would address the area’s lack of educational opportunities and moral guidance.

With this incentive, Miss Pettit, along with Miss Ethel de Long, a New Jersey native who was a Smith College graduate and had worked as a principal at the Hindman school for two years, began a new project in Harlan County. By 1913 they founded Pine Mountain Settlement School.

Miss Katherine Pettit, seated on horse with man and woman standing nearby on road below Indian Cliff dwelling at School entrance. X_099_workers_2494_mod.jpg

Miss Katherine Pettit, seated on horse with man and woman standing nearby on road below Indian Cliff dwelling at School entrance. [X_099_workers_2494_mod.jpg]

Miss Pettit’s strength, energy, and farm experiences as a child suited her for supervising the outdoor work. As she directed the clearing of land, planting of crops, the physical construction of buildings and landscape, she also saw to it that the natural beauty of the land was disturbed as little as possible.

The new directors recruited architect Mary Rockwell Hook, a graduate of Wellesley College and a former student in the atelier of Marcel Auburtin in Paris, France. Hook, with Pettit and de Long devised a comprehensive, plan for siting the buildings within the pristine landscape of the valley. Hook was just the person to enlist for assistance with the campus layout and new buildings as she readily adopted the grand views of Pettit and de Long but brought a contemporary overlay and community spirit to her architectural and landscape work that produced one of the most unique environments of any rural settlement school. The first Pine Mountain building that Mrs. Hook designed was a log home for Miss Pettit. Today the careful work of Pettit, de Long and Hook is guarded by designation as a National Heritage site.

Ethel de Long, the founding co-director, was responsible for academics and fundraising and created programs similar to those at Hindman but she also gave the new educational programs roots in the most progressive educational philosophies. The educational program joined Pettit’s industrial arts interests with de Long’s unique approach for basic educational preparation. Together the two provided an exciting basic education for children and a unique training program for mothers in health, cooking, and home care.

Both women encouraged the Appalachian people to be proud of their heritage and to work to preserve their arts, folk songs, and customs. For example, Miss Pettit learned about raising sheep, spinning wool, weaving traditional patterns, and using natural vegetable dyes from families who still practiced the old traditions and she then taught these skills to women and children who had not been exposed to these crafts. (The dyeing practices were recorded in The Katherine Pettit Book of Vegetable Dyes by Wilmer Stone Viner, who worked as a housemother for six years at Pine Mountain Settlement School. In 1946, after moving from Kentucky to Saluda, North Carolina, Miss Viner married and she and her husband published the 63-page book based on the dyeing practices she had learned from the community and from Pettit. She dedicated the book to the memory of Katherine Pettit.)

An entry in Notable American Women, 1607 – 1950: A Biographical Dictionary (p. 57) describes Miss Pettit as having a “strong face [that] revealed her personality; a firm planner and manager, yet outgoing, patient, and kind. She was beloved by children and overworked mothers for her suggestions and personal advice….”

Miss Pettit served as co-director at Pine Mountain Settlement School until retirement in 1930. For the next five years, she traveled throughout Harlan County and neighboring counties urging farmers to adopt modern farming techniques. She punctuated her farming consultation with personal travel and short substitutions for staff at the School and the School extension settlements. A solo trip to South America in 1932 was an adventure that not even Pettit imagined.

HIGH ADVENTURE

In 1928 Katherine Pettit took a boat trip that was to be an “around the world” trip. Traveling in the comfort of an ocean cruise liner she visited ports of call along the way.

Just three years later, in 1931, at the age of 64, Pettit struck out alone on a trip to Mexico, Central and South America. It was not planned as an ordinary journey and was certainly not one for the faint of heart. On her return trip on the SS Montevideo Maru in February of 1932 she wrote to her California friend, Ruth Huntington about her adventures:

When first [ I] said that I was going to South America many said that no woman could go alone, especially if she did not know the language. By the time I had my passport and visas [from consulates in Los Angeles] I began to wonder. ..[now] …I ‘ve learned the difference between a tourist and a traveller [sic]. The traveller [sic] has some notion of what he is going to see, the tourist has not. We see only what we are prepared to see. 

… you told me to beware of revolutions, and I told you that I would not let them keep me from going to places. I surely did not know what a revolution was when I said that. I did get to Cuzco [Peru] over the new bridges that were guarded by machine guns, even if the revolution in Peru was not over, and I had to run from the bullets after I got there. I was held up by the Chilean revolution: ran from the machine guns in Asuncion where I was arrested. When asked what I was doing on the street when a revolution was on, I said I wanted to see if the Paraguan [sic] revolution was like the Chilean and Peruvian one. Now I know. [Berea College Special Collections, Katherine Pettit Papers, ]

Following her instincts for good weaving she sought out pre-Incan textiles in the Lima Museum in Peru and commented on their density of some “100 to 160 threads to the inch.” She noted that the Incan natives were

“… said to be the most industrious in the world. As they attend their flocks they are always running, spinning as they run, with the baby and another bundle of produce on their backs, dressed in colored wool homespun.”

While she had no Spanish, she negotiated the purchase of a vicuna rug for a fraction of its worth — always the collector of weaving. She never abandoned her love of indigenous craft and particularly of the craft of weavings of high quality.

At 64 she was hearty but not as hearty as she imagined. Plagued by weight gain and growing mobility issues she took a fall in Santiago and broke a wrist and then another fall which broke her ribs. The incidents slowed her down but she continued through earthquakes, the continuing revolutions in Santiago, and the perpetual tea parties of friends. In the tropical forests she was again the “Blossom Lady” where she saved and replanted native orchids that had been plundered by orchid merchants. Ever the champion of the land and the people, she noted that on her last morning in Rio de Janiero she was heartened to know that a Brazilian woman had donated some 1200 acres of land for the Protestant Mission in Rio. The mission school was to serve as a “farm school” where the street children of Rio might find a new beginning. The stories of the southern continent she relayed to her friend Ruth must have been familiar ones to her and no doubt stirred memories of her own life in the mountains of Kentucky.

On her return to Kentucky in late 1932, she was awarded the Algernon Sydney Sullivan Medallion by the University of Kentucky as an outstanding citizen of Kentucky. Her friend Mary Breckenridge of the Frontier Nursing Service had received the honor in 1935 and the author Frances Jewell McVey was awarded the same honor in 1938. The award, created to recognize and to “…perpetuate the excellence of character and humanitarian service” of the individual, must have been heartening to Pettit who was honored in the company of some of the South’s most important scholars and civic humanitarians. Lauding the “ideals of heart, mind, and conduct as evince a spirit of love for and helpfulness to other men and women,” the award was testimony to the lifetime Pettit gave to the southern Appalachians and its people. She lived only a short four years more.

In those short four years before her death, Miss Pettit, along with Emma Lucy Braun, the well-known Cincinnati biologist and author of The Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America, spoke for the old growth forests of Eastern Kentucky and the land that Pettit and Braun had come to love. In a talk entitled, “Let Us Work Together to Save This Area,” Pettit and Braun raised the awareness of the threat to the primeval forests of both Kentucky and Ohio. Shortly after their talk and promotional tours they founded the Save Kentucky’s Primeval Forest League, designed to protect the original deciduous forests of southeastern Kentucky. While they were not successful in saving the targeted forest and giant poplars of what is now Lilly Woods State Park, they undoubtedly raised the public attention to the plight of other old growth forests.

Katherine Rhoda Pettit died in Lexington of cancer on September 3, 1936, at the age of sixty-eight and was buried in Lexington Cemetery along with other members of her family. A memorial tablet placed in the Pine Mountain Settlement School Chapel sums up her life’s work:

Katherine Pettit, 1869-1936, pioneer and trail-breaker. Forty years she spent creating opportunity for mountain children here and elsewhere. In life, she ever refused praise. In death, she is too great for it.

SERVICE IN MEMORY OF KATHERINE PETTIT, September 13, 1936

Shortly after Katherine Pettit’s death, Ruth B. Gaines, who worked with Pettit as a housemother during the early years of the School and who later worked at John C. Campbell Folk School, wrote to Glyn Morris, then Director of Pine Mountain:

Thank you for the copy of the service and the prayer in memory of Miss Pettit. I think the prayer is a very beautiful one and I know Miss Pettit would appreciate it and give you her lovely smile. She was a rare character and will be missed by many more than we know.

pettit_funeral_001


SEE ALSO:

GUIDE TO KATHERINE PETTIT CORRESPONDENCE

KATHERINE PETTIT “COMMONPLACE BOOK” (Original held by Transylvania University Special Collections)

“Stories Told By Miss Pettit” in Series 01: Planning,

KATHERINE PETTIT’S “STORY OF ANDY”

KATHERINE PETTIT DYE BOOK

KATHERINE PETTIT – WEAVING

KATHERINE PETTIT PHOTOGRAPH ALBUM

RELATED:

Series 01: PLANNING FOR PMSS

Series 02: ARRIVAL AND CONSTRUCTION

PLANNING AND BEGINNINGS (See ARRIVAL AND CONSTRUCTION)


GALLERY

To use the colloquial phrase, the photographs of Katherine Pettit the woman “are as scarce as hen’s teeth.” She resisted all attempts to include herself in photographs, and but a few have surfaced over the years in addition to the few “official” ones that are often found with her biography. In one instance she appears to have vigorously scratched out her image in a photograph that was apparently taken without her permission.

Click on image for full view.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Title Katherine Pettit
Alt. Title Katherine Rhoda Pettit
Identifier https://pinemountainsettlement.net/?page_id=424
Creator Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY
Alt. Creator Ann Angel Eberhardt ; Helen Hayes Wykle ;
Subject Keyword Katherine Pettit ; Katherine Rhoda Pettit ; Pine Mountain Settlement School ; directors ; education ; Progressives ; rural education ; community health ; Appalachian folklore ; administration ; Appalachian music ; Appalachian dance ; botany ; architecture ; Sayre School ; WCTU ; State Federation of Women’s Clubs ; Jane Addams ; Ellen Gates Starr ; Hull House ; May Stone ; Wellesley College ; Camp Cedar Grove ; Camp Industrial ; Sassafras Social Settlement ; WCTU Settlement School ; Hindman Settlement School ; William Creech Sr ; Ethel de Long Zande ; Smith College : Mary Rockwell Hook ; Ruth Huntington ; Wilmer Stone Viner ; Sullivan Medallion ; E. Lucy Braun ; Chapel ; natural dyes ; weaving ; Appalachian crafts ; Pine Mountain, KY ; Harlan County, KY ; Hindman, KY ; Wellesley, MA ; Lexington, KY ; Louisville, KY ; Fayette County, KY ; Knott County, KY ; Perry County, KY ; Sassafras, KY ; Hazard, KY ; New Jersey ; Paris, France ; Saluda, NC ; South American ; Cincinnati, OH ; Southeastern Kentucky ; Pine Mountain Notes ; Mountain Life & Work ; Berea (KY) College ;
Subject LCSH Pettit, Katherine Rhoda, — 1868 – 1936.
Educators — Biography.
Women — Social Reformers — Southern States — History.
Pine Mountain Settlement School (Pine Mountain, Ky.) — History.
Education –Kentucky –Harlan County.
Rural schools — Kentucky — History.
Schools — Appalachian Region.
Rural schools — Appalachian Region, Southern.
Date digital 2004-06-28 ; 2013-10-03 ; 2015-12-01
Publisher Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY
Contributor  n/a
Type Text ; image ;
Format Original and copies of documents and correspondence in folders in filing cabinet ; photograph album(s) ; books ; clipping files ;
Source Series 07: Director’s Files
Language English
Relation Is related to: Pine Mountain Settlement School Collections, Series 7: Director’s Files ; Series 01: Planning
Coverage Temporal 1889 – 1936
Coverage Spatial Pine Mountain, KY ; Harlan County, KY ; Hindman, KY ; Wellesley, MA ; Lexington, KY ; Louisville, KY ; Fayette County, KY ; Knott County, KY ; Perry County, KY ; Sassafras, KY ; Hazard, KY ; New Jersey ; Paris, France ; Saluda, NC ; South American ; Cincinnati, OH ; Southeastern Kentucky ; Berea, KY ;
Rights Any display, publication, or public use must credit the Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY. Copyright retained by the creators of certain items in the collection, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.
Donor  n/a
Description Core documents, correspondence, writings, and administrative papers created by or addressed to Katherine Pettit ; clippings, photographs, publications by or about Katherine Pettit ;
Acquisition n/d
Citation “[Identification of Item],” [Collection Name] [Series Number, if applicable]. Pine Mountain Settlement School Institutional Papers. Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY.
Processed by Helen Hayes Wykle ; Ann Angel Eberhardt ;
Last updated 2001-05-28 hhw ; 2007-07-10 hhw ; 2009-09-13 aae ; 2013-09-10 hhw ; 2015-11-06 hhw ; 2015-12-01 hhw.
Bibliography

Written By Katherine Pettit

“Stories Told by Miss Pettit,” in Series 01: Planning, Series 07: Directors.Pine Mountain Settlement School Institutional Papers. Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY.
Internet resource.

Pettit, Katherine. Commonplace Book [Scrapbook]. n.d. Unpublished scrapbook. Original held by the University of Kentucky, Special Collections.

Pettit, Katherine. An Appeal for Books for the Kentucky Mountains. Outlook (1893-1924) July 13, 1901, Vol. 68 (11), p.650.

Sassafras Album 1901

Books about or including Katherine Pettit

Alvic, Philis. Weavers of the Southern Highlands. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2003. Print.

Appleton, Thomas H., Angela Boswell, editors. Searching for Their Places: Women in the South Across Four Centuries. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2003. Print.

Day, Carrie. The Love They Gave: A Tribute to Miss Katherine Pettit and Miss Ethel Delong, Founders of Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Harlan County, Kentucky. Big Creek, KY: Carrie Day, 1982. Print.

Day, Douglas. In the World of My Ancestors: The Olive Dame Campbell Collection of Appalachian Folk Song. 1908-1916. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 1994: “In 1908, Olive Dame Campbell, young bride of John C. Campbell, the new Director of the Southern Highlands Division of the Russell Sage Foundation, accompanied her husband on his pioneering social survey of the Southern Appalachian mountains. She began almost immediately to collect ballads and folksongs she heard in the course of her travels. By 1916, her collection, unusual in the attention she paid to collecting tunes as well as song texts, had attracted the attention of her benefactors at the Sage Foundation, Harvard ballad scholar George Lyman Kittredge, and British folksong collector Cecil Sharp. In 1917, Campbell and Sharp together published the pivital English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, which contained some forty-four of sixty-odd songs collected by Mrs. Campbell. The work has been accepted into canon of American folksong scholarship. The author, working as a public folklorist at the John C. Campbell Folk School eighty years after Mrs. Campbell began her collection, found that the only existing copy of Mrs. Campbell’s manuscript was a carbon copy in the Ralph Vaughn Williams Memorial Library at Cecil Sharp House in London. Examination of the manuscript revealed that the collection consisted of not only the known sixty songs (with over twenty unpublished tunes), but the texts to one hundred and sixty other folksongs collected in the mountains of Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee and North Carolina. Marginalia on the manuscript, when correlated with correspondence in the Campbell Papers in the Southern Historical Collection at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, showed that Mrs. Campbell’s collection was in fact a collaboration with other members of the Council of Southern Mountain Workers, especially Katherine Pettit of the Hindman Settlement School and Isabel Rawn of the Martha Berry School, neither of whom were credited in either the 1917 or the 1932 edition of EFSSA. A full reappraisal of the collection sheds new light on the cultural intervention of the self-styled “folk movement in the mountains” in the first decades of the Twentieth Century.”

Greene, James. Progressives in the Kentucky Mountains: The Formative Years of the Pine Mountain Settlement School, 1913-1930. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. 1982: [“This is a study of the creation and early development of a private, progressively-oriented educational institution in Southern Appalachia (Harlan County, Kentucky) in the early years of this century at a time when Appalachian society was in transition from a rural to an industrialized lifestyle. Based largely upon school archives and oral history, the study consists of three parts: first, a look at events surrounding the founding of the school; second, a detailed analysis of its curriculum and the make-up of its student body and staff at the time; third, an examination of the school’s functioning as a social settlement. Its founders, Katherine Pettit and Ethel de Long Zande, were in many ways textbook progressives. Like Jane Addams and John Dewey, they saw education as a force for social reform and wanted the child to become an instrument in the creation of a new mountain society drawing upon the best of the old and the new in mountain life. They saw education as a process of growth through living a meaningful life at any point in one’s existence. The duty of the school was to provide the student with an idealized environment in which such growth could occur, a growth formative of character which would sustain him throughout life. Thus Pine Mountain organized its boarding program around cottages rather than dormitories; its students participated in a work program in which each job was important to the well-being of the school community; and it fostered spiritual and cultural values through a low-key Christian emphasis and through the preservation and revival of mountain crafts, ballads, and folk dancing. With regard to the community, the school attempted to mediate between the traditional culture and the outside world, assisting neighbors in health, recreation, religious, and economic development.”]

Heinemann, Sue. Timelines of American Women’s History. New York: Berkley Publishing Group, 1996. Print.

James, Edward T., Janet Wilson James, and Paul S. Boyd. Notable American Women, 1607-1950: A Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971. Print.

Johnson, Joan Marie. Southern Women at the Seven Sister Colleges: Feminist Values and Social Activism 1875 – 1915. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2008. Print.

Kleber, John E. The Kentucky Encyclopedia. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1992 (2nd printing). Katherine Pettit entry written by Nancy Forderhase. Print.

Pettit, Katherine. “Ballads and Rhymes from Kentucky,” Journal of American Folklore. (1907). “The first real attempt to publish some of the old songs Kentuckians had been singing for over a hundred years,” according to Charles K. Wolfe in his book, Kentucky Country: Folk and Country Music of Kentucky. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1982. Print.

“Some Remarkable Kentucky Americans.” Outlook (1893-1924), Feb. 21, 1917, p.310. [Discusses racial and ethnic mix of rural Eastern Kentucky and Katherine Pettit’s new Pine Mountain Settlement School.]

Stoddart, Jess, editor, Katherine Pettit, and May Stone. The Quare Women’s Journals: May Stone & Katherine Pettit’s Summers in the Kentucky Mountains and the Founding of the Hindman Settlement School. Ashland, KY: Jesse Stuart Foundation, 1997. Print.

Viner, Wilmer Stone, H.E. Scrope Viner, and Katherine Pettit. The Katherine Pettit Book of Vegetable Dyes. Saluda, NC: Excelsior Printers, 1946. Print.

Whisnant, David E. All That is Native and Fine: The Politics of Culture in an American Region. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1983. Print.

Wolfe, Charles K. Kentucky Country: Folk and Country Music of Kentucky. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1996. Print.

Other Sources About Katherine Pettit

“Ballads and Rhymes From Kentucky,” in Appalachian Heritage, 1974, Vol. 2(1), pp. 19-26.

Blackwell, Deborah. “The ability ‘to do much larger work’: Gender and reform in Appalachia, 1890-1935. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. 1998: “This dissertation seeks to address two broad categories of inquiry concerning women’s reform efforts in Appalachia at the turn of the twentieth century. The first purpose is to tell the stories of five women and their struggles to change the lives of mountain residents in a period of rapid change. The women considered herein include May Stone of Hindman Settlement School, Katherine Pettit of Hindman and Pine Mountain Settlement Schools, Eleanor Marsh Frost of Berea College, Olive Dame Campbell of the John C. Campbell Folk School, and Mary Breckinridge of the Frontier Nursing Service. The second and more ambitious goal is to begin to understand the impact of gendered perceptions on the creation of Progressive-era reform. The women profiled in this study all brought gender-based notions of the world to bear on their work as they shaped Appalachian progressivism. Pettit, Stone, Frost, Campbell, and Breckinridge exhibited specific, middle-class notions of women’s place in society, and their organizations reinforced those views. Women reformers have often been understood either as victimizers of mountain people or as selfless angels. The truth, however, is considerably more complex. This study suggests that Appalachia’s women reformers negotiated a space between traditional gender roles and modern ideas about science and learning in the process of creating reform. Through their organizations these five women attempted to ameliorate the poverty and illiteracy faced by many mountain residents. In the process, they embraced modern methods of mothering and housekeeping as they reinforced those traditional female duties. By promoting crafts work as a source of income for families, these female reformers acknowledged the importance of women to the household economy. Their public health work addressed critical needs and reflected the maternalist stress on knowledgeable motherhood. Their relationships with the state and other authority figures, however, moved beyond lobbying for mothers to address good roads and licensing nurse-midwives. In creating reform efforts, these women relied on networks of kinfolk, friends, and colleagues to sustain and inspire them at a time when their work was often perceived as daring and risky. Applying gender analysis to Appalachian reform thus results in a complex portrait of control and benevolence.”]

Durisek, Susan Smith. “A coat of ferns: the plants add a lushness to gardens.” In “Living” section of on-line Kentucky.com Lexington Herald-Leader (accessed 2009-09-09). Internet resource.

England, Rhonda George. Bringing Modern Notions of Childhood and Motherhood to Preindustrial Appalachia: Katherine Pettit and May Stone, 1899-1901. [Paper presented at the Appalachian Studies Conference in Morgantown, WV, on March 17-19, 1989.] Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association, 1 January 1990, Vol. 2. pp.69-75. Print.

Engelhardt, Elizabeth. Southern Appalachian Ecological Literature and Feminism: Women Authors Address the Land, 1890-1910. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

Lockwood, Carol A. (editor) 2000. American National Biography Online. FULL TEXT.

 McEntee, Grace. [Bookk Revoiew] The Quare Women’s Journals: May Stone & KatherinePettit’s Summers in the Kentucky Mountains and the Founding of the Hindman Settlement School, Appalachian Journal, 1 October 1998, Vol.26(1), pp.54-57

England, Rhonda George. Voices from the History of Teaching: Katherine Pettit, May Stone and Elizabeth Watts at Hindman Settlement School, 1899-1956. Thesis, 1990. Print.

Farr, Sidney Saylor. The Quare Women’s Journals: May Stone & Katherine Pettit’s Summers in the Kentucky Mountains and the Founding of the Hindman Settlement School, and: Courageous Paths: Stories of Nine Appalachian Women (review) NWSA Journal, 1999. Vol. 11(3), pp. 205-207. Print

Foderhase, Nancy. {Book Review] The Quare Women’s Journals: May Stone and KatherinePettit’s Summer in the Kentucky Mountains and the Founding of the Hindman Settlement School. The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, 1 October 1997, Vol.95(4), pp.433-435. Print.

Furman, Lucy. “Katherine Pettit, Pioneer Mountain Worker.” Notes from the Pine Mountain Settlement School. 8 (November 1936). Print.

Glen, John M. [Book Review] The Quare Women’s Journals: May Stone & KatherinePettit’s Summers in the Kentucky Mountains and the Founding of the Hindman Settlement School. The Georgia Historical Quarterly, 1 July 1998, Vol.82(2), pp.451-452. 

McVey, Frances Jewell. “The Blossom Woman.” Mountain Life & Work. 10 (April, 1934): 4, 5. Print. [Also: Appalachian Heritage. 1975, Vol 3 (4) pp. 62-74

Archival Sources

Neville, Linda (1873-1961). Linda Neville papers, 1783-1974. Includes Charles Kerr (1863-1950); Nevile family, (1783) Special Collections Research Center Special Collection and other locations.

Additional papers of Katherine Pettit are located in the following collections:

Hutchins Library Special Collections, Berea (KY) College
Hindman (KY) Settlement School
Pine Mountain (KY) Settlement School Archives
Transylvania University, Lexington, KY
University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY

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