Pine Mountain Settlement School
Series 07: DIRECTORS
Series 09: BIOGRAPHY
Ethel de Long Zande (1879-1928)
PMSS Co-Founder & Co-Director 1913-1928

ETHEL DE LONG ZANDE Director ; Ethel de Long with mountain dulcimer, c. 1915

Ethel de Long Zande with mountain dulcimer, c. 1915. [pmss0005.jpg]

TAGS: Ethel de Long Zande, WCTU Settlement School, Hindman Settlement School, Katherine Pettit, Uncle William Creech Sr, co-directors, co-founders, Mary Rockwell Hook, Helen de Long, fundraising, hands-on learning, rural education, community health, Appalachian traditions, Luigi Zande, dulcimers, letter-writing, Nativity play, Chapel, Zande House, Alberto Zande, Elena Zande, May Stone, teachers, social reform, Evelyn K. Wells 

Co-Founder & Co-Director 1913 – 1928

Ethel de Long Zande (1879-1928) was born Ethel Marguerite de Long on October 20, 1879, to George and Arabella M. de Long. At an early age, she demonstrated her lifelong love for family, humankind, the natural world, and intellectual and artistic studies. According to the article written in the 1928  Notes from the Pine Mountain Settlement School following her death, the author describes her character as generous and ingenious

At the age of eighteen, when youth clamorously demands freedom, she became [her family’s caregiver], the family at that time consisted of an invalid father, a delicate little mother, and a child sister. Unwilling to leave them behind, and unwilling to forego the cherished plan of a four-year course at Smith College, she proposed to set up a home at Northampton [Massachusetts]. Thither the family moved in the summer of 1897, from Montclair, New Jersey, where she was born and had always lived. By availing herself of loan funds, by tutoring from her sophomore year on, by teaching in the Easthampton High School during her junior and senior years, Ethel made her way through college, constantly inspired…by the spiritual encouragement of her mother.

This estimate of Ethel as a highly motivated young woman is also found in the family history,  “The DeLongs of New York and Brooklyn: A Huguenot Family Portrait,” by Thomas A. DeLong with a Forward by Elizabeth L. White and published by Sasco Associates in Southport, Connecticut in 1972.[ Internet Archive: accessed 2023-06-15]

Thomas DeLong quotes one of ETHEL MARGUERITE deLONG’s fellow workers who says

“Whatever you hear about ETHEL MARGUERITE deLONG it isn’t enough.She was a magical person. When she came into a room it was as if someone had drawn back the curtains and flung open the windows to fill it with clean fresh air.”

When Ethel received her B.A. in 1901 from Smith College she, along with many graduates of women’s colleges during this time, elected a career that echoed her personal values: teaching and social reform. She began that journey in Springfield, Massachusetts where she worked as an English teacher at Central High  until 1905. She then moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where she taught English at the Manual Training High Schoolin the city for five years.

According to the Pine Mountain 1928 NOTES article that describes her early career, “she worked under two of the best superintendents in the United States, both men, Dr. Thomas Balliet and Mr. Calvin Kendall, were well-known in the educational world.” The two men remained life-long friends and Calvin Kendall was later recruited for the Pine Mountain Board of Directors by DeLong. During her ten years of teaching she was known for maintaining a very high standard of instruction that was balanced by a “loving understanding of people …” [Thomas DeLong, p, 137,]

In recounting Miss de Long’s interests, the NOTES article states:

While she loved nature with intensity, and books more than nature, she loved people essentially …

To her teaching she brought [a] wealth of intellectual interest. She was…a born teacher. All the delight of intellectual give and take which she found in conversation, in the writing and receiving of letters, in discussion and debate, she brought into the classroom.


While  Ethel was still teaching English at the high school in Indianapolis, a friend invitedher to visit the W.C.T.U. (Woman’s Christian Temperance Union) Settlement School [later re-named Hindman Settlement School] at Hindman, Kentucky.  May Stone and Katherine Pettit, the co-founders were impressed by  DeLong and she was recruited to become principal at the newly founded School in Knott County, Kentucky. The WCTU Settlement was the forerunner of Hindman Settlement School and was officially founded in 1902.

Working alongside Katherine Pettit and May Stone, the co-founders of the WCTU Settlement, Ethel learned about the life of the mountain people and their pressing needs and fell quickly under the spell of the people and life-style of the surrounding community.

Around 1911 Katherine Pettit was approached by a local preacher, who explained the desire for another school to address the educational needs in near-by Harlan County.  Through the persuasive efforts of  Reverend Lewis Lyttle, and mountaineer, William Creech Sr. “Uncle William”, who wished to donate land, a deal was struck to start another remote Settlement School in Harlan County. The new school would address the what the local community leaders described as educational opportunities and moral guidance. The  generous donation of land and mutually agreed upon mandate were enough to inspire Miss Pettit to action.  She quickly recruited Ethel de Long to leave Hindman near Christmas of 1912 and to explore and then establish Pine Mountain Settlement School by 1913 — and with the apparent blessing of May Stone, who would be left at te helm of Hindman..

It wasn’t easy for Pettit and de Long, two women who had grown up in more prosperous circumstances. The second Settlement start at Pine Mountain was in an even more remote corner of Appalachia than was Hindman.  The record of the two founding administrators of Pine Mountain is a fascinating story. Their early struggles are filled with the details of life in the remote location, and make for exciting reading.  Liberally punctuated by the exuberance, excitement and success of their efforts,  their enthusiasm was a draw for other adventuresome women. During the first several years, with Uncle William Creech’s assistance, and that of other families in the Pine Mountain Valley,  they oversaw the clearing of the land and streams, planting of fruit trees, and construction of buildings using near-by natural resources and aided by supplies hauled by men and oxen over the steep Pine Mountain.


Around 1913 Ethel and Katherine recruited the architect, Mary Rockwell Hook, a graduate of Wellesley (MA) College.  Hook, an eager adventurer, had studied design for one year in Paris in the studio  of Jacques Marcel Auburtin (1872-1926).  Aburtin, a leading architect and graduate of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, the distinguished National School of Fine Arts in Paris, was a strong influence on Hook. Though Auburtin was an urbanist, Hook’s aesthetics were strongly influenced by the rural, but the two combined in many of Hook’s commissions.  Though Hook did not successfully complete the exam for graduation from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (nor did her male cohorts!) her training served her well. She quickly undertook a master plan for the School including the administration and classroom buildings and the cottages and dorms and their placement on the rolling hills of the campus. Of particular with respect to the farmland needs was a cooperative effort. Those efforts are now recognized as a National Historic Landmark site.


Angela Melville Album II – Part V. “Helen de Long.”[melv_II_album_218.jpg]

Around 1914 and through the 1920s, Miss de Long’s younger sister, Helen Bray de Long, (b. 1887) along with their mother Arabella, were frequent visitors to the campus. Helen, the younger of the two daughters, b. 1887, also went to Smith College. As a teacher and a librarian she was in the classroom in Delaware and in Connecticut. She was also the family care-giver — especially for their Mother Arabella.

The two took and collected many photographs of the School and workers at the School and they were photographed by others. Captured on horseback, Helen de Long is seen here ready to explore  the  community and its  activities. Helen de Long’s Photograph Album is part of the Pine Mountain Settlement School collections, as are the books she and family collected. The Helen De Long and de Long Family Book Collection and the de Long photographs provide an early view of the developing campus and the activities within the educational programs.


In addition to assisting with the physical design of the new campus, Ethel de Long was a tireless recruiter for money and for staff. In fact, she was one of the most successful fund-raisers to ever work for the School.  Miss de Long used the fundraising skills she developed at WCTU Settlement School and the network of prospective donors that she had built while attending Smith College. Her contacts at Smith and other Northeastern women’s colleges were also valuable when it was time to hire well-trained and dedicated workers for the School. It was through the deep friendship of Ethel de Long with Board member Darwin D. Martin that the School thrived in the period between the WWI ad WWII.

As a result of the work of de Long, Pettit, Hook, Uncle William and others the School was a thriving institution of deeply engaged staff and Board members during the Boarding School years. The well-chosen staff, their strong determination, intelligent planning, and compassion for the people of the region, energized Pine Mountain Settlement School and it  blossomed and grew. Forty students were attending classes and receiving room and board on campus as early as 1915. Education began to reveal its ability to be a strong change agent under the watchful eye of de Long an her staff.

From the start, the students not only gained a basic education, but also industrial training. Ethel de Long’s careful educational planning laid the foundation for educational programming in the first two decades of the School and was an inspiration to many of the educational programs that were developed later in the School’s history. Hands-on learning experiences in the areas of recreation, health, nutrition, and the preservation of traditional occupations, such as spinning, weaving, dancing, and music were integral to her planning. Ethel, herself, became accomplished at many of these creative skills, particularly the dulcimer.

In April 1918, Miss de Long and Luigi Zande, an Italian stonemason who had been working at the School, traveled to Norwich, Connecticut, to marry. The couple returned to Pine Mountain one day before the death of Uncle William Creech, the donor of land for the Schoo. Both Zandes were able to help with his funeral preparation and memorial. That summer they lived temporarily in Pole House while Luigi built a little hillside cottage for his new wife. The building which came to be called Zande House is still in use on the Pine Mountain Settlement School campus as a staff and visitor dwelling. The Zande’s son “Berto”,  born in Louisville, KY, on March 19, 1919, and named after his Italian grandfather, Alberto Zande, spent his early years in the new cottage. Four years later, the Zandes adopted an infant daughter Elena, who was born on December 28, 1922. The future looked bright for all.



Throughout her later years at the Pine Mountain School, Ethel de Long Zande continued raising funds by traveling the country and giving talks at schools and organizations, such as the Chautauqua (NY) Institution, Sons of the American Revolution, Daughters of the American Revolution, Buffalo (NY) Historical Society, Wellesley College Christian Association, Northwestern University (Evanston, IL), Smith College, and the National Geographic Society in Washington, DC.. Her reach was deep and persuasive.

She was noted by the Smith Alumnae Quarterly in 1929 for her “appeal and charm” when she spoke. A description of her presentation was recorded in the 1917 Proceedings of the 26th Continental Congress of the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution as follows:

“Miss de Long tells the story of the mountains so well, she illustrates her talks by singing the mountain ballads while playing them on a dulcimer.”

As a former English instructor, Ethel del Long had a well developed writing style that was compelling and profuse,  The author of an article in Printers’ Ink 112 (April-June 1929), suggested that all “correspondents and students of letters” use one of her letters as an example of effective writing:

A letter which achieved such notable results is worthy of examination by all correspondents and students of letters. In the first place it is to be noted that Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, author of the letter, was so thoroughly “sold” on her subject that the letter almost wrote itself. She let her own emotion appear in what she wrote and yet she composed with great restrain[t]. The letter is a model of simplicity, genuineness, and sincerity throughout. It takes in order all the steps necessary to the writing of a good letter, advertisement, or story – attention, interest, conviction, stimulation to action.

Ethel de Long Zande’s personal letters of correspondence along with those of her family were received by the Pine Mountain Settlement School collections on March 4, 2014, from their guardian and former staff member, Kendall Bassett.  A comprehensive GUIDE TO THE DE LONG-ZANDE PAPERS. prepared by Dr. James Greene a member of the current Board of Trustees, received the letters from Kendall Bassett, with a promise to give the letters a good home. A fire-proof filing cabinet is now nearly full of the large correspondence of the de Long family.

Bassett who was a close friend of Ethel de Long, her sister Helen, and their mother, Arabella de Long. received the de Long-Zande letters following Ethel’s death in 1928 and passed them to James Greene who was engaged in writing his dissertation, Progressives in the Kentucky Mountains (1982, FULL TEXT). In 2014, as a Pine Mountain Settlement School trustee, Greene has turned the correspondence over to the School as directed by Kendall Bassett, in 1982.

At this writing only a fraction of the large body of family correspondence has been transcribed. It is a wealth of early institutional history and further develops the biography of Ethel, her family and Luigi. The deep history is fascinating.


In her fundraising correspondence and speeches, Miss de Long describes the hardships of the mountain people, but she was always an advocate of the region and its people. Always positive an hopeful for their lives, Ethel wrote not only out of love and respect for the people, but also to make her letters more acceptable to wealthy philanthropists.  According to historian Nancy Forderhase, in her overview of de Long Zande’s philanthropic writing, “Philanthropy and Antagonism: Kentucky Mountain Schools in the 1920s” in Border States: Journal of the Kentucky-Tennessee American Studies Association. 6 (1987): 41–51, Ethel knew how to pull at the heart-strings of donors, but encountered the push-back at the local level from both community and from her own staff.

An example of Ethel’s promotional sentiments may be found in her article, “The Far Side of the Mountain” in the October 1916 – March 1917 issue of The Survey:

The outside world, hearing of the southern mountains as the home of feuds and the distilling place for moonshine, reading of boys and girls who have no knowledge of books, or of modern achievement, considers the Appalachians the frontier of civilization; while we who know intimately the life of the southern mountaineers long to preserve the old standards of courtesy and behavior, the dignity and simplicity of the hills.

An example of a different sort of writing is one of the most creative and beloved of Pine Mountain’s annual events. This  effort is the Nativity Play, which she and her students wrote around 1915. It became an annual community tradition and has been presented by the School every December since its introduction by Ethel de Long Zande.


The death of Ethel de Long Zande came much too early and too quickly. She died on March 18, 1928, at the age of 49 after a brave struggle with breast cancer, complicated by pneumonia. Writing to one of  her staff at the near-by Medical Settlement at Big Laurel just weeks before her death she said

I wish I had begun to feel that I was just resting! I still have too many rheumatic pains in my back, and too much trouble with breathing, to feel anything but sick. I consider that this is the first illness that I have ever had in my life, and don’t know how to take it very well. It seems so surprising not to feel better every day …

Letter to Anna Brockschlager, March 8, 1928.

An article by Frances Jewell McVey, “The Blossom Woman,” in the April 1934 issue of Mountain Life & Work 10 (page 4), quoted a friend who, at the time of Ethel de Long Zande’s death, described the legacy of Katherine Pettit and Ethel de Long in this way:

Fifteen years of building into the mountain life of Kentucky this edifice made of dreams-come-true of two devoted women! What eye can gauge its proportions or what hand presumes to set down its extent? I know only with what conscious purpose they made education in the Kentucky mountains their contribution to the whole cause of education, with what power they created a unique school at Pine Mountain, with what joy they have lived their days among the mountain folk. 

At the time of her death in 1928, a brass memorial plate was placed in the transept of the Pine Mountain Chapel, given by the Montclair Pine Mountain Association. It can still be found in that Chapel location and reads:


Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, wearing glasses and standing in front of a rhododendron bush. [X_099_workers_2527d_mod.jpg]

In Memory of the Radiant Leadership
and Inspiration
Ethel deLong Zande
in this School
Whatsoever things are true
Whatsoever things are honest
Whatsoever things are pure
Whatsoever things are lovely
Think on these things.

That radiance also went out for so very many others when Ethel de Long Zande was buried just to the left of the Chapel nave that runs parallel with the road.  It is a strange marker. The choice of what appears to be a carefully selected boulder of mountain limestone. It has a curious anthropomorphic shape resembling a face. Two “eyes” seem to stare out over the valley as though this visionary woman still watches over the School that she so lovingly helped to create. The stone chosen by her stone-worker husband, Luigi Zande, resembles the interesting stone “face”  on the Uncle William Creech Memorial Fountain, also, most likely,  a work of Luigi.

ETHEL DE LONG ZANDE Director ; Grave marker for Ethel de Long Zande. March 16, 1928.

“For our beloved wife and beloved mother Ethel de Long Zande. Luigi – Alberto – Elena . Made the Resting Place, March 18, 1928. ” [2019-08-19-17.49.55-1.jpg]the .  

But, one of the most curious stone arrangements is found on the Southside of the campus, high on the hill, near the old Infirmary (now HIll House) . There, the two, Ethel and Luigi seem to be joined, face to face in an eternal embrace, if one looks to the left of a root cellar chiseled out of one of the many boulders at the School. (Look carefully!)   Whether this is the imagination playing with nostalgia, or light playing with the vision,  or is purposeful, we may never know.  But, this writer likes to think of this as and image of the early romantic imagination of  two important figures in Pine Mountain’s history. It is a vision that can only be seen if one looks carefully and remembers how important it is to light up an idea. It is the image this writer likes to hold in memory — of a remarkable couple and their potential to inspire if held in the open imagination.  

ETHEL DE LONG ZANDE Director: Children of Ethel and Luigi Zande

Alberto [“Berto”] Zande was born on March 19, 1919, in Louisville, Kentucky. He spent his first ten years at Pine Mountain Settlement School where his mother, Ethel de Long Zande served as co-director of the School and his father, Luigi Zande, worked as a stonemason, builder, and teacher.

He attended North Carolina State in Raleigh and served in the U.S. Army during World War II.

From age 10 he lived in Asheville, North Carolina, where he married Juanita Arline Froneberger, daughter of Lawrence and Alma Froneberger, on January 11, 1941. They had three children, each born in Asheville: Angela C. Zande (b. April 5, 1949), Michael L. Zande (b. June 25, 1950) and Anthony Louis Zande (b. June 21, 1954). Alberto and Juanita were divorced in 1966 and Alberto wed Elizabeth Vashaw Bulloch on November 25, 1967.

Alberto became president of Southern Tool & Die Company, manufacturers of stampings, dies and special tools, at Asheville and lived in nearby Arden. He died on January 12, 1998, in Asheville.

Juanita Arline Froneberger, born on January 15, 1915, in Mecklenburg, NC, died on January 3, 2000, in Charlotte, NC.

Elena Zande was born on December 28, 1922, in Missouri and was adopted by Luigi and Ethel Zande as an infant. She was educated at St. Mary’s Seminary, a Catholic institution in Maryland dedicated to an ecumenical approach to education and religion. In 1947 she married Barney Beigel at Santa Monica, California. The couple had two children: Roline Beigel and Margaret Beigel. Elena Zande died April 1973 in Santa Monica, California.


GUIDE TO THE DE LONG-ZANDE PAPERS [Largely family correspondence donated to Pine Mountain Settlement School by Kendall T. Bassett, a former worker at the school ]

ETHEL DE LONG ZANDE CORRESPONDENCE 1913-1928 Guide [Largely administrative correspondence not included in GUIDE TO THE DE LONG-ZANDE PAPERS]


ETHEL DE LONG, “DOINGS ON TROUBLESOME“, Smith Alumnae Quarterly. (July 11, 1911) [1913 ?]

ETHEL DE LONG, “MOUNTAIN MANNERS,” Smith Alumnae Quarterly

ETHEL DE LONG, “THE FAR SIDE OF PINE MOUNTAIN,” The Survey. 37 (3 March 1917) p. 627-630 [Online: Internet Archive]

LETTERS TO FRIENDS 1911-1928 by Ethel de Long (See: Dear Friend Letters -Index) (Promotional literature)

DEAR FRIEND LETTERS – INDEX (See above: LETTERS TO FRIENDS 1911 -1928 for those by de Long)








                NOTES  1928




ETHEL DE LONG, “SCHOOL AS COMMUNITY CENTER,” for National Conference of Charities and Corrections, June 7, 1915.


Gravestone for Ethel de Long Zande, located on the front side of the Chapel. [IMG_1909.jpg]

Title Ethel de Long Zande
Alt. Title Ethel Marguerite de Long Zande
Identifier Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY
Creator Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY
Alt. Creator Helen Hayes Wykle ; Ann Angel Eberhardt ;

Subject Keyword

Ethel de Long ; Ethel de Long Zande ; Ethel Marguerite de Long Zande ; Smith College ; Manual Training High School ; WCTU Settlement School ; Hindman Settlement School ; Katherine Pettit ; Uncle William Creech Sr ; Pine Mountain Settlement School ; directors ; co-directors ; co-founders ; Mary Rockwell Hook ; Helen de Long ; Berea College (KY) ; fundraising ; administration ; education ; hands-on learning ; rural education ; community health ; Appalachian traditions ; Appalachian music ; Appalachian dance ; Luigi Zande ; dulcimers ; letter-writing ; Nativity play ; Chautauqua Institution ; Sons of the American Revolution ; Daughters of the American Revolution ; Buffalo Historical Society ; Wellesley College Christian Association ; Northwestern University ; National Geographic Society ; Dr. Thomas Balliet ; Calvin Kendall ; Chapel ; Zande House ; Alberto Zande ; Elena Zande ; women’s colleges ; photography ; Ecole des Beaux-Arts ; Wellesley College ; May Stone ; George de Long ; Arabella M. de Long ; Notes from PMSS ; English ; teachers ; Nancy Forderhase ; Montclair Pine Mountain Association ; social reform ; Northampton, MA ; Montclair, NJ, Springfield, MA ; Indianapolis, IN ; Hindman, KY ; Harlan County, KY ; Knott County, KY ; Wellesley, MA ; Paris, France ; Berea, KY ; Chautauqua, NY ; Buffalo, NY ; Evanston, IL ; Washington, DC ; Alice Spencer Geddes Lloyd ; Evelyn K. Wells ; Mountain Life & Work ;

Subject LCSH

de Long Zande, Ethel Marguerite, — 1879 – 1928.
Educators — Biography.
Pine Mountain Settlement School, (Pine Mountain, Ky.) — History.
Education — Kentucky — Harlan County.
Rural schools — Kentucky — History.
Schools — Appalachian Region.
Rural schools — Appalachian Region, Southern.




Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY




Collection ; Text ; image ;


Originals and copies of documents, correspondence in file folders in filing cabinet ; album(s) ;


Series 7: Director’s Files ; Series 7: De Long – Zande Papers




Is related to: Pine Mountain Settlement School Collections, Series 7: Director’s Files
Is related to: LETTER 1915 – TRIP TO HINDMAN.

Coverage Temporal

1879 – 1928

Coverage Spatial

Pine Mountain, KY ; Northampton, MA ; Montclair, NJ, Springfield, MA ; Indianapolis, IN ; Hindman, KY ; Harlan County, KY ; Knott County, KY ; Wellesley, MA ; Paris, France ; Berea, KY ; Chautauqua, NY ; Buffalo, NY ; Evanston, IL ; Washington, DC ;


Any display, publication, or public use must credit the Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY. Copyright retained by the creators of certain items in the collection, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.




Core documents, correspondence, writings, and administrative papers created by or addressed to Ethel de Long Zande; clippings, photographs, publications by or about Ethel de Long Zande.




“[Identification of Item],” [Collection Name] [Series Number, if applicable]. Pine Mountain Settlement School Institutional Papers. Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY.

Processed by

Helen Hayes Wykle; Ann Angel Eberhardt ;

Last updated

2001-05-28; 2007-07-10; 2009-09-20 aae; 2013-10-17 aae; 2013-12-17 hhw; 2017-01-16 hhw; 2017-07-05 aae; 2020-11-13 hhw;



Annual Register of the Alumnae Association of Smith College: Report for 1915-1916. Northampton, MA: Smith College, 1917. Print.

de Long, Ethel. Doings on Troublesome.” Smith Alumnae Quarterly. (July 11, 1911): 17-22. Print.

de Long, Ethel. “The Far Side of Pine Mountain.” The Survey. 37 (October 1916 – March 1917): 627. Print.

de Long, Ethel. “The School as a Community Center.” Presented at the 43rd National Conference of Charities and Correction in Indianapolis, IN, May 1916. In Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction. 43 (1916). Print.

DeLong, Thomas A. The Delongs of New York and Brooklyn: A Huguenot Family Portrait. Southport, Conn: Sasco Associates, 1972. Internet resource Accessed 2017-07-05.)

Forderhase, Nancy K.. “Eve Returns to the Garden: Women Reformers in Appalachian Kentucky in the Early Twentieth Century,The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, Vol. 85, No. 3 (Summer 1987), pp. 237-261.
URL: Print.

“IAWA Spotlight: Mary Rockwell Hook.” IAWA Newsletter. 4 (Fall 1991). Print.

James, Edward T., Janet Wilson James, and Paul S. Boyd. Notable American Women, 1607-1950: A Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1972. Print.

McVey, Frances Jewell. “The Blossom Woman.” Mountain Life & Work. 10 (April 1934): 4. Print.

Minton, Jennifer, and Harry Hinkle,“The Role of Women in the Development of the Settlement Schools.” Lexington, KY: KET Productions, 1995. (accessed 2013-10-17). Internet resource.

Municipal Register of the City of Springfield for 1905. Springfield, MA: S. Bowles, 1905. Print.

Notes from the Pine Mountain Settlement School. 11 (September 1928). Series17: PMSS Publications. Pine Mountain Settlement School Institutional Papers. Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY. Internet resource.

Printers’ Ink. 115 (April – June 1921). Print.

Proceedings of the Twenty-sixth Continental Congress of the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution, Washington, DC. 26 (1917): 948. Print.

The Smith College Monthly. 13 (October 1905): 194. Print.

Stoddart, Jess. Challenge and Change in Appalachia: The Story of Hindman Settlement School. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2002. Print.

Wikipedia. Ethel de Long Zande. Online source.

Wolfe, Margaret Ripley. Daughters of Canaan: A Saga of Southern Women. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1995. Print.

Miss de Long’s papers and images can be found in the following locations:

Correspondence between Ethel de Long Zande and Alice Spencer Geddes Lloyd. Alice Lloyd Caney Creek Community Center Collection, 1915-1954, located in the University of Kentucky Libraries: Lexington, KY.

Correspondence with Evelyn K. Wells in Country Dance and Song Society Archives, Milne Special Collections, University of New Hampshire Library: Durham, NH.

Pine Mountain Settlement School Photographic Collection, Berea College Southern Appalachian Archives in the Hutchins Library Special Collections & Archives: Berea, KY.

Zande, Ethel de Long, transcriptions of correspondence, 1914-1926.” Series 07: Directors. Pine Mountain Settlement School Institutional Papers. Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY. Archival material.

Greene, James. Guide to de Long – Zande Collection, March 2014. Series 07: Directors. Pine Mountain Settlement School Institutional Papers. Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY. Internet resource.

About Ethel de Long Zande

Day, Carrie. The Love They Gave: A Tribute to Miss Katharine (sic) Pettit and Miss Ethel Delong, Founders of Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Harlan County, Kentucky. Big Creek, KY: Carrie Day, 1982. Print.