DARWIN D. MARTIN 1928 Correspondence Part 1

Pine Mountain Settlement School
Series 05: GOVERNANCE – Board of Trustees
Darwin D. Martin
1928 Correspondence
Part 1

Two mules pulling the old Ford truck. [kingman_063a]

DARWIN D. MARTIN 1928 Correspondence Part 1

TAGS: Darwin D. Martin 1928 Correspondence, PMSS Board of Trustees, piano, fire extinguishers, pottery pitchers, fruit trees, used clothing, Ford truck, Luigi Zande, Ethel de Long Zande, the Cabin, Angela Melville, Edith Canterbury, Katherine Pettit, Laurel House, Evelyn Wells, S.C. Tozier, Big Log, Ruth Campbell, Elena de Long, Christmas

The Darwin D. Martin 1928 Correspondence provides images, contents and transcriptions of the 1928 letters to and from Darwin D. Martin, a member of the Board of Trustees at Pine Mountain Settlement School, 1920-1933. Martin, a generous contributor to and consultant for the School, was Chairman of the Board of Trustees in 1928. The death of Ethel de Long Zande in March of 1928 put a particular emphasis on Martin as the Chair of the Board to mediate a multitude of decisions.

Martin, as an executive of the Larkin Co. in Buffalo, New York, one of the largest retail organizations in the country, was well suited to guide Pine Mountain through this rapid shift in leadership, and crisis. The 1928 correspondence of Martin and Pine Mountain’s leaders, is some of the most compelling and revealing of the mountain institution’s heartbeat.  The dialogues in this early period of institutional crisis helped to shape Martin’s deep attachment to the School. His generous guidance was rich in training  for those who worked at administering the School and those who served on the diverse Board of Trustees. His strong engagement with Pine Mountain for over a decade between two World Wars is testimony to his belief in the School’s mission and to his deeply held belief in giving back to society. Valued as a “truth teller” he was a product of good fortune and he never forgot the early lessons he learned on the path to prosperity. He had a deep sense of service to both disadvantaged youth and to dedicated employees — he had lived both those those lives.

To read more about Darwin D. Martin see the biography DARWIN D. MARTIN Board.

CONTENTS: DARWIN D. MARTIN 1928 Correspondence Part 1

1928-01-06, pages 1 and 2. 

Mrs. Zande thanks Mr. Darwin D. Martin for Lindbergh airmail stamp and envelope for her collection; will write to Children’s Village at his suggestion; compares students’ costs to PMSS. Piano has arrived and placed in Laurel House; also have received stove, bed, mattress. Mentions series of broken ankles among students; her health; her children. Delighted to be getting a truck and Martin’s help with new power system. Describes Christmas events, including Nativity Play.

1928-01-09, one page.

Mr. Martin tells Mrs. [Ethel de Long] Zande of a Decker Brothers upright piano that Mrs. Martin will refurbish and send to Pine Mt. for the Schoolhouse.

1928-01-13, one page.

Mr. Martin sends a catalog to Mrs. Zande and asks her to select the model and number of fire extinguishers he should order for the School.

1928-01-20, one page.

Mr. Martin writes to Mrs. Zande about arrangements to prepare and ship the Decker piano, pitchers and books to PMSS. He describes attending a concert presented by the Kedroff Quartet from Russia.

1928-01-27, one page.

Mr. Martin writes Mrs. Zande that Larkin Co. will be sending pitchers from a pottery in Ohio. He will be moving the Decker Bros. piano to his country house instead of Pine Mt, but will substitute another. He provides details of his trip to visit in-laws in San Antonio with Mrs. Martin and Miss Herrick.

1928-02-21, one page.

Mrs. Zande writes to Mr. Martin about the problems of growing fruit trees at Pine Mt, responds to a clipping about the Crossnore School, and orders fire extinguishers. Regarding fruit trees he says: “ First of all, as to school fruit trees: We have planted in the years we have been here, something like over 750 trees. We have had only one crop from the peach trees that amounted to anything, and they were poor. We seem to be in a pocket that is particularly susceptible to frosts, and it is foolish to try to make fruit our line, especially peaches. Of course, we go on propagating apple trees in the hopes that we shall have them finally. There is more hope for them than for peaches.” Regarding Crossnore’s practice of selling used clothing, Martin says,“We feel very strongly the undesirability of selling much of the clothing and other second-hand articles sent into them.” The fire extinguishers were “Model A pressure extinguishers, capacity 2 1/2 gals. water, non-freezing.”

1928-03-06, one page. 

Mrs. Zande reports to Mr. Martin on the arrival of a second-hand Ford truck and Luigi Zande’s appreciation of its usefulness. She describes the “Cabin” in which Mrs.[Martha] Burns now resides. She writes that the Harlan Kiwanis Club is fundraising $2500 for the School and how the money will be used.

1928-03-14, pages 1 and 2.

Mr. Martin writes to Mrs. Zande that he has returned home with Mrs. Martin and Miss Herrick. He regrets that the fruit trees are not prospering and urges Mr. Browning to get advice from the state expert. He will order four fire extinguishers and has sent a check to cover truck and expenses. He cites prices for various encyclopedia, and will send Britannica and Compton’s for now. He gives his opinion of Texas and sends a clipping of a Christian Science Monitor lecture.

1928-03-19, pages 1 and 2.

Mr. Martin informs Miss Wells of the telegrams he sent to Board members. He quotes from Mrs. Hook‘s message. He describes his response to Luigi’s message and his feelings about Wells’ March 5th prophetic letter. He asks for Miss Pettit’s address. He quotes the By-Law, Article IV, which delegates executive authority to an Executive Committee. Martin encloses a copy of a letter to Luigi about Luigi’s obligations to the School and Martin’s desire that the Board will retain him. He also hopes that Miss Wells will agree to remain. He can meet earlier with the Board in Cincinnati if necessary and mentions Mr. Daniel M. Lord, Father Lord, Mr. [Charles N.] Manning, and Mr. Samuels. In a postscript he writes admiringly of Mrs. Zande’s brave front in her March 6th letter to him.

1928-04-23, pages 1 and 2.

In a letter to Mr. Martin, Angela Melville encloses Edith Canterbury‘s letter, regretting that Canterbury feels as she does. Melville suggests that Mr. Martin ask if Mrs. John C. Campbell will release Marguerite Butler if Miss Butler is interested in the Pine Mt. vacancy. Miss Melville is good for two years but not longer. However, if no-one better is available Miss Melville will take the position only if Melville is director and she and Pettit are co-workers with equal authority. This is not as Mrs. Zande wanted, but Melville wishes to spare Miss Pettit the blow of having less authority than a younger person. If such an arrangement doesn’t work by the end of two years, then the incoming person will have a clear and justified field. Miss Melville states that her love for Uncle William, Pine Mt., and Miss Pettit constrain her in this matter.

1928-05-01, one page.

Mr. Martin asks Luigi Zande for the plan of the Laurel House basement so that Martin can order laundry machinery and boiler from Randall Machinery Co. He provides specifications and costs to be covered by Harlan Kiwanis fundraising.

1928-05-12, one page.

Luigi Zande responds to Mr. Martin’s May 9th letter, agreeing that a separate chimney is needed for the high pressure boiler. Zande provides his own recommendation and the estimated costs for building the new chimney. He then informs Mr. Martin that he will be leaving Pine Mt. as of July 1st and Miss Pettit is working on finding his replacement.

1928-05-16, pages 1 and 2.

Mr. Martin writes to Miss Pettit that he heard from an accountant friend about the audit for Caney Creek, a certified high school, indicating that the school is deeply in debt. He provides the numbers of students and staff and describes the lack of adequate staff or food.

1928-07-17, pages 1 and 2.

Mr. Martin responds to Evelyn Wells‘ July 12th announcement. He mentions Miss Melville’s July 14th letter describing recent hirings and Miss Melville’s travels. He received Lucy Furman’s article late, but mailed a copy to Mr. Samuel C. Tozier at Pippa Pass, KY, auditor for Caney Creek. He asks Wells to share the new information with Miss Pettit. He writes about Mr. Tozier’s concern for Mrs. Lloyd and Miss Buchanan, describing their positions, situations, and plans. Mr. Tozier’s greatest concern is that their school of 350 children has little food, but they refuse fotched-on food. He asks about Mr. Zande’s work.

1928-00-ND, one page. [martin_022.jpg]

S.C. Tozier thanks Mr. Martin for sending Miss Furman’s article, which Tozier feels is completely false if it’s about Caney Creek Community Center Inc. If time permits, he will go to Hindman Settlement School and ask Miss Stone for a statement that Miss Furman is no longer connected with any mountain schools. He compliments Martin and the other officers and staff on Pine Mt.’s good reputation and is interested in hearing more about the School.

1928-07-21, one page.

The writer of this unsigned letter (probably Evelyn Wells) informs Mr. Martin that Mr. Tozier’s statements are inaccurate. She reports that, with Miss Melville’s help, they have 3 applicants for the bookkeeping position from Cincinnati. Work on Big Log shingling will begin soon.

[See full transcriptions following the images.]

Next: DARWIN D. MARTIN 1929 Correspondence

See Also: DARWIN D. MARTIN Board

Back To: DARWIN D. MARTIN Correspondence Guide

GALLERY: DARWIN D. MARTIN 1928 Correspondence Part 1 (001-050)



1928-01-06, Page 01. [martin_002x.jpg]

January 6, 1928

Dear Mr. Martin:
Shall I take your letters of the last two weeks in the order of sequence, or the order of importance? I will take them in sequence, and then I shall be sure of getting everything in.

How good of you to send us the Lindbergh air mail stamp and the autographed envelope. I collect stamps, so I am full of appreciation.

Just as soon as all the Christmas thank-yous are gone, we shall write to the Children’s Village, as you suggest, and I will send you an analysis of our figures which will show you that the cost of educating a child at Pine Mountain is more nearly twice than three times the cost at the Children’s Village, — about $400.00, when we take out all the extension work expenses.

The piano has come, and we are delighted with it. You said it had a golden oak case, and gave it a black eye needlessly! The fumed oak makes it a very good-looking piano in the dining room, at Laurel House where it is placed. The girls at Laurel House who take music lessons can practise (sic) on it there, and we can have piano music in the dining room, without moving the instrument from the Schoolhouse, which was very costly and difficult. If we had another piano, we should use it in one of the first floor rooms at the Schoolhouse, as a place where more people could have the chance to practise. There are two or three other living rooms which would be thankful for pianos if anybody offers them.

Mrs. Burns’ stove has come, also the bed and mattress.

The broken ankle belonged to Ruth Campbell, a young Wellesley girl who is spending her first year here. We have had six other ankles injured, all belonging to young workers or children, which goes to prove the truth of the saying, “Children, you are very little, and your bones are very brittle.” We are thinking of adding to the questionnaire that goes out to applicants, “Please have your bones tested for brittleness.”

I came back from Baltimore with the reassuring news that I seem to be doing very well indeed. I may be troubled for a long long time with the radium burn from the heavy treatments I have had, but that doesn’t disturb me or cause us any anxiety. Of course these trips are a great nuisance but it is wonderful to have doctors looking you over carefully, through these years when care is the thing. You can imagine my resentment at having to attach importance to ills which I once could forget altogether! I shall be glad when I am safely past these days of taking care of myself.

1928-01-06, Page 02. [martin_006.jpg]

The children are both blooming again. Elena said to Aunt Evelyn during my absence, talking over all the details of the Christmas story which she loves, “But how did Mary get word to the angels to sing?”

We are just delighted about the truck. We think we can get it from the brother of one of our workers, who is in the automobile business and who is able to secure cars at cost. A letter of inquiry has gone off to him, and we will let you know when we have more light on the subject. It is fine news that you will help us with the new power system. Luigi [Zande] has had to devote his energies to the mishaps that come up when the thermometer goes to fourteen below zero, but has managed to get some vacation.

How I wish you could have seen Christmas here! It was perhaps the nicest one we have ever had. I think with particular pleasure of the night when Far House acted out their carol in the dining room, “The Twelve Days of Christmas”, in a very stately fashion, using the balcony as a stage, offering their gifts of colley (sic) birds, and goldie rings, and ladies dancing and asses racing and all the rest, to a beautiful lady in a medieval yellow gown and pointed cap, while below the singer and two dulcimer players, also in Boutet de Monvel costumes, made the music. This was followed by wassalers (sic) and waits from the Boys House, bringing the Yule Log and opening the Christmas Pie, which contained balloons and paper streamers for all the tables, and then came Santa, announcing himself with a storm of peanuts, confetti and balloons from the balcony. The presents from every house were tied up in big baskets in vari-colored tissue paper, help aloft by Santa Claus and announced, while the hundred children below shrieked with delight. Then there was a perfect carnival of balloons, confetti, and paper streamers.

The last night the children were here, we had the beautiful Nativity Play in the church, which was one of the loveliest things that ever could be. I am so much interested, whenever I see a choice list of Christmas music, presented by the English Singers, or Appleton Chapel, or some big city church, to find how many of our own carols make up the list. Through these years, we seem to have accumulated about the cream of Christmas music. Don’t you think you’d better come down some time?

It is splendid news that Mrs. Martin is so well. I am just delighted. I hope all goes well with the households of Darwin and Dorothy.

With warmest New Year’s wishes to you,
Very Sincerely yours,

TRANSCRIPTION: 1928-01-09, one page. [martin_001.jpg]


Jan. 9, 1928

Mrs. Ethel Zande,
Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc.,
Pine Mountain, Ky.

Dear Mrs. Zande:

Your letter of 6th carefully noted. I am most pleased with your report of your trip and safe return with reassuring news.

I am pleased, too, to note that G.W. Miller of Larkin Co., misinformed me of the piano case. I am sure he said golden oak.

We have at home a Decker Brothers upright piano thirty years old with very fine burled walnut case. Moths have consumed the felts. Mrs. Martin is planning to have it refelted and thoroughly renovated, then boxed and shipped to you. I think, therefore, it will come along within a few months. We will be glad to know that it is installed in the schoolhouse.

Thank you ever so much for the delightful report of your merry Christmas. I heard the English Singers here last winter and may again late this month.

I am astonished that you have had fourteen below zero. Buffalo has quite a reputation for weather but our low record is fourteen below and that only once — in 1884.

Yours very truly,
[signed] Darwin D. Martin

TRANSCRIPTION: 1928-01-12, one page. [martin_003.jpg]


Jan. 12, 1928.

Mrs. Ethel Zande,
Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc.,
Pine Mountain, Ky.

Dear Mrs. Zande:
Here is the catalog of Childs non-freezing fire extinguishers. See page 24.

The Model A pressure extinguisher will cost $25.50 fob probably factory, hold 2 1/2 gal. water, and when exhausted at a fire require a new charge before it can be used again. The charge must be replaced every year and costs $3.87 1/2.

The “Childs” costs $14, hold 5 gal. water and can be used over and over at a fire by refilling with water. The non-freezing charge costs $2.55 and lasts two years. The “A” weighs 40 lbs., the “Childs” 65 lb.

Please read descriptions carefully and tell me how many of which or both models, you think the school ought to have.

Yours very truly,
[signed] DarwIn D. Martin

TRANSCRIPTION: 1928-01-20, one page. [martin_004.jpg]


Jan. 20, 1928.

Mrs. Ethel Zande,
Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc.,
Pine Mountain, Ky.

Dear Mrs. Zande:

Mrs. Martin and I will be pleased to have the Decker piano in the Boys’ House living-room. The Buffalo Ass’n for the Blind is sending a sighted workman to refelt the hammers and a blind piano tuner to put on the finishing touches. After that, the piano goes to Larkin Co. to fumigate, box and ship.

The books last selected (“That Buffalo Children Like Best”) will be shipped with the piano, and please tell Miss Jones likewise the 1 1/2-pt. pitchers if Larkin Hotel Supply Department can dig them up.

To make you more envious; we have recently had the great pleasure of hearing the Kedroff Quartet. Professor Kedroff was of the Russian Imperial Conservatory of Music. The four men are now exiles. They sing without accompaniment, and are like the Russian antiphonal church singers. They sang us America in Russian, but cannot bring themselves, yet, to sing the lost Russian national anthem, as impossible, they say, as for the Hebrews to sing after the Babylonian exile.

Your very truly,
[signed] DarwIn D. Martin

TRANSCRIPTION: 1928-01-27, one page. [martin_005.jpg]


Jan. 27, 1928.

Mrs. Ethel Zande,
Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc.,
Pine Mountain, Ky.

Dear Mrs. Zande:

Larkin Co. Hotel Supply Department assure me the 1 1/2-pint pitchers will be sent by parcel post directly from a pottery in Ohio.

And now I have to confess that the Decker Bros. piano is not (now, at any rate) destined to Pine Mountain. It is fixed up and we are selfishly going to appropriate it for the country house! We shall make partial amends, however, by substituting another. It will depend upon what Mr. Miller of Larkin Co. picks up. Be patient.

Saturday night Mrs. Martin, Miss Herrick and I start for San Antonio, Texas, where Mrs. Martin’s mother and sister have spent the past several winters. We have never visited them and as they left this year Dec. 1st and will be gone until May 1st, Mrs. Martin thinks we ought to spend February with them. We will stop en route two-and-a-half days in Chicago, and to show Miss Herrick the city, two days in New Orleans, then a day or so in Galveston and Houston. I will try to be back at the office March 15th. You can continue your letters to me here as though I were on the job. My experienced secretary, Miss O’Brien, will give your wants her best attention.

If you want to reach me personally, address Hotel Menger, San Antonio.

Yours very truly,
[signed] Darwin D. Martin

TRANSCRIPTION: 1928-02-21, one page. [martin_007.jpg]

February 21, 1928

Dear Mr. Martin:
First of all, as to school fruit trees: We have planted in the years we have been here, something like over 750 trees, peach and apple mostly. Mr. Browning has now many young apple trees. We have had only one crop from the peach trees that amounted to anything, and they were poor. We seem to be in a pocket that is particularly susceptible to frosts, and it is foolish to try to make fruit our line, especially peaches. Of course we go on propagating apple trees in the hopes that we shall have them finally. There is more hope for them than for peaches.

I was interested in your clipping about the Crossnore school. We know about it, from personal observation and from the comments of visitors. We feel very strongly the undesirability of selling much of the clothing and other second-hand articles sent in to them.

And now about fire extinguishers: We want four of the Model A pressure extinguishers, capacity 2 1/2 gals. water, non-freezing. Of course we would like to have all our extinguishers alike, but think in those buildings which are likely to be closed during the Christmas vacations, it is better to take no chances.

I hope San Antonio is proving a delight to all the Martins.

Very sincerely yours,

Mr. D.D. Martin
Marine Trust Building
Buffalo, N.Y.


TRANSCRIPTION: 1928-03-06, one page. [martin_009.jpg]

Dear Mr. Martin:

We have a Ford truck! it has been almost the only topic of conversation since its arrival last Thursday and mouths still drop open when it heaves in sight. And Luigi comes home every noon and tells me how much work it has gotten done in the morning, with the pride of a parent whose child has just proved to be a brilliant success. He says it has already paid for itself. We got it through Harlan, a second-hand one. The new models were heavier than we wanted. This one had been in use only six months, and seemed to be exactly what we wanted. It was $650.00 when new, and we paid for it, with extra repair parts and tires, $357.00. We think it may be well to spend another hundred on it sometime soon and install double gears for our hills. The price for the time of the mechanic who came with it to show Luigi how to take care of it, we have not yet received.

You just don’t know how pleased we all are with it. Luigi realizes that he can really do real work now. He has had to borrow the team from the farm, and when he couldn’t get it, use boys with barrows, and now that is a thing of the past, and he can keep the road in repair, etc. etc. in a decently successful way. Thank you and thank you for it!

I don’t believe I have written you since Mrs. Burns moved into the “Cabin.” It is the cutest place you ever saw, and almost every worker here has asked Luigi when he will build them one like it. His reply invariably is, “When you are married.” He should, to be consistent, add, “and widowed” (or divorced!)

How did you enjoy Texas? And did you see any of the fascinating parts of the country that we get glimpses of in “Death comes to the Archbishop” and such things?

The Kiwanis Club in Harlan is launching a drive to raise $2500 for us. We expect to use the money towards the new laundry and its equipment, whatever they get.

Very sincerely yours,

Mr. Darwin D. Martin

TRANSCRIPTION: 1928-03-14, 2 pages.

Page 01. [martin_010.jpg]


Mar. 14, 1928.

Mrs. Ethel Zande,
Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc.,
Pine Mountain, Ky.

Dear Mrs. Zande:
I returned to my job yesterday morning bringing Mrs. Martin and Miss Herrick home well (although Mrs. Martin started from Buffalo Feb. 1st from a week’s sickbed). I found your letters of Feb. 21st and Mar. 6th awaiting me.

Am sorry that fruits do not prosper with you but hope Mr. Browning will keep trying. Perhaps the state experiment station expert would come and advise.

I will order four fire extinguishers as soon as I get a little more abreast of my work.

I am delighted by your letter of Mar. 6th, so typical of you in giving us so full a share in the life at Pine Mountain. There is a check for $500 to pay for the truck, the double gears to be installed and the bill of the mechanic-demonstrator. I hope the other various projects in Luigi’s hands which I cannot recite now, will be accomplished in due time. I counted the laundry as one of them and expected your specifications therefore to result from your and my investigations (I reported mine to you).

I laid aside before my trip Miss Wood’s very modest requisition for Everyman’s Library volumes, but it is not lost sight of. She told me of your need for encyclopedia and her preference for the Americana. Old encyclopedias are not much more satisfying than old directories. A new edition of the Americana costs upwards of $160. There is a 1927 Compton’s Pictured Encyclopedia which I can buy for $37.50 F.O.B. Chicago in special public library style-sewed binding in buckram. Shall I send it to replace the worn out old one? I can get the “new” International in 23 vols. for $30 but it is 1913 edition. I would not enjoy sending it.

I have a special price of $70. from the manager of the Chicago office of the Encyclopedia Britannica for the 13th Edition in 16 vols. green cloth. This is in reality 90% the 11th Edition augmented by the 12th Great War and 13th supplementary additions. Better let me send the Britannica and Compton’s for present use and look forward to Americana later. Of course you know that a lot of subjects are treated much more exhaustively in Britannica than in Americana.

I can also get a Century Dictionary with atlas,…

Page 02. [martin_011.jpg]

…last edition (you know it is old) 12 vols. $60, excellent condition. What dictionaries have you?

When workers’ cottages like Mrs. Burns’ are due under Luigi’s terms, I will back him up in them.

I have not read “Death Comes to the Archbishop” but shall. We all enjoyed Texas but I cannot apply the word “fascinating” to much of it that I saw. Like inhabitants everywhere, Texans love their state (for all of which may God be praised). Each of us everywhere are best off in our own environment. I would be glad if I could to move all the Appalachian highlanders to a state so good as Texas.

I believe the Christian Science Monitor comes to the school? I do not know how often you see it, and probably you never take time to read the semi-occasional lectures on Christian Science that appear therein. A recent Monitor contained a lecture so much appreciated by all of my family that Mrs. Martin has bid me send it you herewith. She thinks its universal import warrants asking you to read it, for some part of it must be stimulating to any mind which is as keenly receptive to Good as is yours. I would enjoy knowing that Luigi has shared it.

Yours very truly,
[signed] Darwin D Martin

TRANSCRIPTION: 1928-03-19, 2 pages.

Page 01. [martin_012.jpg]


Mar. 19, 1928.

Miss Evelyn K. Wells,
Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc.,
Pine Mountain, Ky.

Dear Miss Wells:

Your telegram dated yesterday 9.a.m. (10 a.m. here) from Harlan was phoned to Mrs. Martin while I was at church. Immediately upon my return I arranged for telegrams to all the Board members — depending upon Mr. Manning to share his with Mrs. Morton. I do not know where Miss Hench‘s will find her but the telegraph company made delivery in Laurel, Miss. to her or to some one for her.

Mrs. Hook has wired — “Deeply grieved over Ethel’s death. I would go there at once but am obliged to leave in a few days for California to start building a house. I could attend a trustee meeting by the last week in April if you find it necessary to call one” — which practically fixes the earliest date at which the trustees’ meeting can be held at the school.

I was grateful for the calm spirit indicated by Luigi’s message, viz., — “After long warning God took Ethel home this morning. Service Tuesday” — even though I do not share his Fundamental views.

Of course I resisted the belief when I read your letter of March 5th that it was so accurately prophetic, and I suppose if we could so see it the fact that the time was shorter than even so close a watcher as yourself could foresee, is physically a blessing to all of us.

Except to refrain from injecting a telegram today or tomorrow, I would wire for address of Miss Pettit. Please wire it on receipt of this if it is feasible for me to visit her, unless it seems wiser that I defer the time until the Board meets. Would at least write her if I knew her address.

The By-Laws, Article IV, delegate executive authority to an Executive Committee of three members, and the minutes of the meeting of the Board in 1927 record who these are. The By-Law provides that ***** “the Executive Committee, or a majority of them, shall possess and exercise all the powers of said Board” *****.

As it may be well for you to know of my urging upon Luigi his obligations to the school and the cordial desire of the Board to retain him, I am enclosing in this a copy of my letter to him.

By the end of April all your minds will have become somewhat adjusted to the new situations, and no doubt the Board will find at its meeting that its principal work will be to confirm plans presented by the school organization. I know nothing of your personal…

Page 02. [martin_013.jpg]

…aspirations or even of the terms under which you are now giving your devoted service, but I shall hope that you will want to remain and that the way will be open for you to agreeably do so.

Should it seem wise to have an interview earlier than the Board Meeting, I can leave my rather involved duties here for a weekend in Cincinnati most any time. Meanwhile, the President of the Board is very dependent for instructions from the school for terms of authority to be delegated.

I did not notify Mr. Daniel M. Lord, as I assumed that Father Lord is so close that he must have received a telegram yesterday. I hope Mr. Manning and Mr. Samuels will attend the services tomorrow.

Assuring you of my very lively sympathy and desire to lighten in every way possible your problems, I am,

Very sincerely yours,
[signed] Darwin D Martin

P.S. Mrs. Zande’s letter of March 6th will always remain a prized possession; so brave a front when she was in such distress of body.

TRANSCRIPTION: 1928-04-23, 2 pages.

Page 01. [martin_014.jpg]

New York N.Y.
April 23, 1928

My dear Mr. Martin:

I found the enclosed letter from Miss Canterbury upon my return home this evening. I have returned to the office to send you this letter, as it will be a relief to have the matter off my mind. I enclose the letter from Edith Canterbury, though I take it, from what she says, that you at last got her over the wire. I am sorry she feels as she does.

Regarding Marguerite Butler: I wonder if it has occurred to you that you might wire Mrs. Campbell asking her if she would feel free to release Miss Butler if the latter were interested, and if the Pine Mountain vacancy were offered to her? Please do not think me unduly interfering, nor too urgent in this matter. I do want you to have the right person if you can get her, and the permanent one. As you know, I am good for two years only, and there is small chance that my character will be so change[d] in those two years that I will have become a stable person — it is really not at all likely to happen. Should you want me to take advantage of this suggestion, Mrs. John C. Campbell, Brasstown, N.C., is the address. I hope you may. I happen to know that Mrs. Campbell’s niece is abroad this winter studying the Folk Schools — perhaps she could take Marguerite’s place there?

Then if no one else better is available and it has to be me, this is the way I would prefer to have you present it to Miss Pettit:

1st; That she take me as her co-worker, with equal authority.

2nd; That she want me as Director, preferring herself to keep charge only of her own departments, as you suggested.

I reali[z]e that in making the above suggestion I am going counter to what Mrs. Zande wished, as you told me. I realize also that I am complicating my own problems. In spite of this I would prefer it. As nearly as I can get at the truth of my reasons for preferring that I take on the double-headship (which has been so painful these past years), I find: That I cannot free my mind from the blow it will be to Miss Pettit to have me (to her, a whipper-snapper) placed in a position nominally above her in the School, and that I feel I owe it to her many years in the mountains to spare her this, if possible. [Handwritten note in margin concerning the above sentences in this paragraph: “Read at meeting Apr. 28”.] Also, the cynical side of me knows she will interfere just the same whatever her title, then why add bitterness to her opposition if possible to avoid it?

Page 02. [martin_015.jpg]

Mr. Martin–

I think, too, that had Mrs. Zande dreamed I might be the person, she would have felt differently, for she would have realized that it would be awfully hard for me to take a position at Pine Mountain seemingly of more authority than Miss Pettit had. I am willing at least to trust that if Mrs. Zande is conscious of conditions she will understand and approve.

If Miss Pettit declines either of the suggestions named above, then, as you know, I am not a candidate.

I want you to know what a comfort it is, if we are to work together, to have you know me as I am. I should hate it if you thought me strong and powerful! I am so dreadfully weak that you can see anyone can sway me to their needs! But if I am the best you can get now, I am no longer rebellious about it, and promise you that should I have to take on this load, you will hear no more whining from me.

If Miss Pettit tries me as co-worker and it does not work then at the end of the two years the Board will have an easier task, and the person coming in then will have a clear and justified field. At present, what Mrs. Zande has stood for ten years, I should certainly be able to stand for two — to prove the case. Perhaps there will be no need of proof, and we must trust so.

Love for Uncle William who means Pine Mountain to me, and love for Miss Pettit constrain me this matter.

Very gratefully yours,
Angela Mel[v]ille

TRANSCRIPTION: 1928-04-23, one page.



May 1, 1928

Mr. Luigi Zande,

Dear Luigi:
Please send me immediately the plan of Laurel House basement showing locations and dimensions of all objects therein. Give me size and height of chimney; indicate the lines of the superstructure to show the relations of the basement thereto.

I have investigated laundry machinery and power today. I think the solution is steam instead of gas; thus, insurance rate will not be raised. We can have a vertical steam engine 6″ stroke, 6″ cylinder, ample H.P., floor space 3×3′ in the laundry. We can get a 15 H.P,. horizontal Scotch Marine boiler on which we can have 80-100 pounds pressure, if basement and chimney will take it. Space for boiler required is — height 6′, length 9′, width 4′. Your chimney ought to have a 16″ or 12×12″ flue. Has it? The power plant complete, ready to run, will cost $400. FOB Cinti, — piping not included.

LAUNDRY MACHINERY — Washer new — $210. or $240. 30×36″ or 30×48″. Extractor second-hand, guaranteed like new 50% of price originally bid. If we substitute a cabinet dryer for the Junior Tumbler, we will save some $400. there. The whole plant will be ready to run for under $2,000. No gas fumes, no danger, no increased insurance. You have plenty of coal.

Give me also details of your Laurel House heating plant for we may be able to heat with the laundry boiler?’

The Randall Machinery Co. are holding the boiler and engine until we can decide, so let me hear at once. Do not be anxious about the finances. We can bridge over until the Harlan Kiwanis raise their money.

Sincerely yours,
[signed] Darwin D. Martin

[Letterhead at bottom of page displays a drawing of the Cincinnati skyline and the words, “The Queen City — Gateway to the South”.]

TRANSCRIPTION: 1928-05-12 [martin-017.jpg], one page.

May 12, 1928

Mr. Darwin D. Martin
Marine Trust Bldg.
Buffalo, N.Y.

My dear Mr. Martin:

Replying to your letter of May 9th:

I agree with the Randall Machine Co. in recommending a separate chimney for the high pressure boiler. I am glad to know the new boiler will help the old low pressure Pierce and Butler boiler, but I recommend a regular cut-off valve, instead of a back-pressure one, so it can be controlled as there is need for it.

The original Pierce and Butler carried a six-inch main. Here is an estimate for the building of the new chimney:

2 yards of stone, at $3.00 a yard, delivered at junction $6.00
3000 bricks for chimney, at 4 cents each, ” ” ” 120.00
6 sacks cement at $1.35 ” ” ” 8.10
carpentry work, 15 hrs. at 60 cents 9.00
brick-mason work, 40 hrs. at 70 cents 28.00
Helper, 45 hrs. at 30 cents 13.50
roof-flashing and tinker jobs 3.00
Total $187.50

I estimate that this will build a chimney 12 x 14 x 36 ft.

After July 1st I do not know who will do my work. Miss Pettit has known this date for some time, so she has had ample notice. She is writing to various places, I understand, to find somebody for the wood-working classes, repair and upkeep work, and supervision of the various machinery around the place.

Very sincerely yours,


TRANSCRIPTION: 1928-05-16, 2 pages.

Page 01. [martin_018.jpg]


Miss Katherine Pettit,
Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc.,
Pine Mountain, Ky.

Dear Miss Pettit:

I have had a friendly caller today in S.C. Tozier, an accountant with a local firm of accountants, who do the annual audit for Caney Creek. (The firm does some work for me and mentioned incidentally work for Caney Creek, whereupon I asked if I might see the audit.) I am struggling with my conscience over taking a surreptitious copy of the audits which is left with me. You would not want me to offer an exchange of audits?

I can certainly tell you in a general way that they are terribly in debt, but have accumulated a large amount of assets in their ten years’ history.

Mr. Tozier astonishes me with the following information, some of which you no doubt know though I did not. The resident pupils number 125 to 150. There are 350 pupils at the Center who come from their homes. These numbers are exclusive of Branches, one of which Mr. Tozier visited. There are only 14 or 15 resident workers. There are some laborers and mechanics employed by the day in the lumbering saw mill and quartering operations. No worker receives exceeding $50. per month. No bookkeeping of students’ time. All work for their tuition. All pledged to remain in the mountains and teach.

Mrs. Lloyd, age 50, weight 85 pounds, one side crippled by infantile paralysis, draws nothing except such clothing as she takes from the donated clothing. She has no secretary; operates her own typewriter, using a board support for her left hand, works 7:30 a.m. to 10 p.m.

Her mother, Mrs. Geddes, age 78, born in England, is the excellent general bookkeeper; draws nothing, contributes her pension of $360 per year and her salary as postmistress $1,000.

Miss June Buchanan, age perhaps 28, from Moravia, N.Y. (John D. Rockefeller’s birthplace), Wells College graduate, draws $50 per month (the Buchanans are wealthy). Miss Lee (Wells College) is Dean of Women. There is a Miss Klein of East Aurora, N.Y. (16 miles from Buffalo).

The dining-room is supplied with donated dishes. The fare is very frugal, principally corn products, which the children prefer (the school operates a toll mill). The teachers spend a good deal of their salary for extra food.

Caney Creek is now a certified high school. Has been doing second year college work and next year begins third year. Some pupils come from Berea because the English and Foreign Language Depart-…

Page 02. [martin_019.jpg]

…ments are stronger at Caney Creek!

I give you this for what it may be worth. Mr. Tozier is very sincere. If you want the detailed figures without exchange, I will see if I can get them ethically.

Yours very truly,
[signed] Darwin D Martin

TRANSCRIPTION: 1928-07-17, 2 pages.

Page 01. [martin_020.jpg]


July 17, 1928

Miss Evelyn K. Wells
Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc.
Pine Mountain, Kentucky

Dear Miss Wells:
Your letter of the 12th received, the announcement bears a Sunday date which I presume you can correct in the proof, and if you deem it best, embody Mr. Manning’s embellishments.

Same mail brings me Miss Melville’s letter of the 14th announcing that a secretary and a Domestic Science teacher are “booked” and good hopes of a bookkeeper. Miss Melville will visit her sister in Toronto and give us here a day before starting to see Mr. Mansell at Cincinnati.

Lucy Furman’s article has come a couple of days late but am mailing a copy to Mr. Samuel C. Tozier at Pippa Pass, Kentucky who makes the annual audit for Caney Creek, for which he started, I suppose, Saturday night. He will be back here end of month. I was about to write Miss Pettit of his talk with me last Friday which is about as follows, uncolored by this new light from Lucy Furman. Please, therefore, share this with Miss Pettit.

Mr. Tozier has every confidence in Mrs. Lloyd. She wants to add him to her staff but he has pledged to his employer here that he will come back on schedule. Mrs. Lloyd weighs 85 pounds, dresses from the second hand donations, her right arm and left leg are more or less useless. She started her work six miles from Hindman, but not to be in the way, removed to twelve miles distance and refuses to take any Hindman pupils. She wants money for a chemical building, possessing which she can secure from the state a college charter and extend her present college course from two years to four years and give a full-powered diploma. Mr. Tozier reiterated that Mrs. Lloyd is a Wellesley College graduate and that her chief assistant Miss June Buchanan of Moravia, New York, is also a Wellesley graduate, a beautiful wealthy girl under thirty who spend eleven months a year at the school, contrary to the wishes of her family.

One July 1, in Syracuse I met a retired Methodist minister who spoke of their Miss Buchanan in a mountain school. I neglected the opportunity to draw out what knowledge he had as I did not recall that Miss Buchanan was at Caney Creek, associating her instead with Mrs. Campbell at Brasstown.

Knott County is “the heart of the moonshine country”. The mountain folks burned Mrs. Lloyd’s first buildings, they do not allow her to have any church other than a Sunday School for the children. There are 350 children Their only food is corn and beans. They like…

Page 02. [martin_021.jpg]

…it and want no other. The food is Mr. Tozier’s hardest cross to bear, but fotched on food is resented and so he can only surreptitiously take malted milk and chocolate. He dare not invade Knott County without boy guides from the school who incidentally bring him a mule to ride from the station. Mr. Law died because no animal met him on his final trip in, so that he walked many miles and when some mountain folks provided him one he was very heated and took cold a-riding, pneumonia resulting. Tozier is a fine young man, seemingly thoroughly “sold” on Mrs. Lloyd.

In Mr. Zande’s list of “Work to be done” he provides “Cover Big Log Soon; Far House next year”. What is meant by “cover”? Shingle? Is the work on Big Log scheduled for this summer or year?

Yours very truly
[signed] Darwin D Martin


No date, one page. [martin_022.jpg]

Caney Creek

Post Office
Pippapass, Kentucky.

Dear Mr. Martin:

I wish to thank you very much for the interest in Caney Creek shown by sending me the article that you did.

I do not think that the article was about Caney Creek Community Center Inc. because if it was, it is an absolute falsehood from start to finish. There was not one statement that was true if Miss Furman was referring to this school.

I am bringing back with me concrete facts enough to prove to any business man that this school is everything that it claims to be.

If I have time enough I am going to Hindman Settlement School at Hindman, Ky., and secure a statement from Miss Stone that Miss Furman is no longer connected with any of the Mountain Schools.

I think it is a crime for any woman to write such articles about the Mountain School[s] which are doing so much good here and are needed so much no matter how small or poorly conducted.

You and your other officers and staff should be highly complimented upon the Pine Mountain School as it is very well known here in the mountains and every one can only pay it the highest compliments.

Your mountain leaders are well known here, personally both the late Mrs. Zande & Miss Pettit; also Miss Huntington if I remember right is the new head. Another thing which is of great interest to me is that your school does not seem to have any enemies. If it has I have not run into them.

I certainly would like to go on down there from here but find my time limited. I have enquired and found that it is a two days’ horse back trip from here.

I will get in touch with you when I return to Buffalo which will be on Friday or Saturday of this week. I am very much interested in hearing more about Pine Mountain School.

Very truly yours,
S.C. Tozier.

TRANSCRIPTION: July 21, 1928, one page. [martin_023.jpg]

July 21, 1928

Dear Mr. Martin:

It is amazing to hear that the Caney Creek fiction still goes on, after all these years! Mr. Tozier’s statements will all bear checking up, I believe, but I am here to say absolutely, as a Wellesley B.A. myself, that (1) Mrs. Lloyd has never had the slightest connection herself with that college and that June Buchanan is far from under thirty, that she never graduated, that she is not listed as an associate nongraduate member of the alumnae association, and that I believe her only connection is a little post-graduate work or special study one year.

Perhaps it’s not important for the auditor to be up on such facts, if he has disbursements and intake of funds accurately listed!

I am hoping Miss Melville has gotten off to Toronto for a little holiday, and isn’t still in New York hunting the book-keeper! There are three applicants at present from Cincinnati.

“Cover” means “shingle.” The shingles are ordered and I understand that work on Big Log will begin soon after Mr. Cain’s arrival.

Sincerely yours,
[unsigned, probably Miss Evelyn Wells]