EDUCATION Antioch College Cooperative Education at PMSS

Pine Mountain Settlement School
Series 13: EDUCATION
Antioch College Cooperative Education at PMSS
1920s and 1930s

EDUCATION Antioch College Cooperative EDUCATION at PMSS

PMSS student teachers from Antioch College Cooperative Education program, 1930. John Howard Young, Glenn Argetsinger, Harold Gough standing behind Farm House. [X_100_workers_2577_mod.jpg]

TAGS: Antioch College Cooperative Education at PMSS, Antioch College Cooperative Education Program, student teaching, community development, student teachers, work/study programs, Gladys Hill,  Katherine Pettit, Ethel de Long Zande, Margaret Motter, Co-op education

EDUCATION Antioch College Cooperative Education at PMSS
1920s and 1930s


The Antioch College Cooperative Education Program at PMSS supplied a steady stream of teachers for Pine Mountain Settlement School in the late 1920s into the 1940s. The Cooperative program began at Antioch College over 90 years ago and continued to be a signature part of the college’s curriculum for many years. The Co-Op Education Program, as it is also known, is a program in which students alternate between on-campus study and off-campus work. It is not surprising that the two schools worked together to advance the idea of work/study. This innovative form of education was also favored by administrators at Pine Mountain Settlement School in its early days .

Yellow Springs, Ohio, near Dayton, where Antioch is located, is slightly over 300 miles from Harlan, Kentucky. In the 1920s and 1930s, the Antioch students generally traveled to PMSS by train to Harlan where they would be met by the mail carrier or a PMSS staff member who escorted them over the Pine Mountain to the School. Transport over the mountain was primitive at best. Horseback, mule, wagon, and later truck or car, on the Laden Trail was always an adventure. Even the later paved road  to the School could take the breath away.

Yet, the eager teachers continued to come. Pine Mountain Settlement School must have required some adjustment for the Antioch students. An initial change would be that of traveling from the relatively flat terrain of central Ohio to a campus deep in the Appalachian Mountains. Soon after beginning their assignments, the Antioch students would find that they  not only gained experience in practice-teaching, they  also encountered a unique cultural experience. Often the speech, very different from their own, was mentioned frequently in the teachers’ letters. In this new environment many staff members who came to the School were fascinated by the unique language and expressions used in the Pine Mountain community.


The PMSS Collections contains letters that indicate a relationship with Antioch College as early as the 1920s. Katherine Pettit mentions in an undated letter to Ethel de Long Zande, probably written in early 1925, that she was visiting Antioch College with May Stone, her earlier co-director at Hindman Settlement School. On February 26, 1925, Ethel Zande responded:

My dear Kate [Katherine Pettit, Lexington, KY]:

I am much interested in your impressions of Antioch….I had already written to Dr. Morgan making inquiries, for another year, and had told him that I hoped he would be there when you made your visit, so that you could talk things over together.

You know I tried to get teachers from there last year, but we could only get them in ten-week shifts, and it seems to me we want to avoid these changes [in duration of contract] if possible. ……

In a letter dated March 7, 1928, to Miss Helen Greene, Antioch College, Ethel Zande stated that she preferred having two co-op teachers from Antioch instead of Kendall Bassett’s return to Pine Mountain for the full year. She observed that “others have had difficulties working for the whole year” and asked Miss Greene to talk with Bassett about his experience. [Kendall T. Bassett Correspondence, image 007]

The PMSS student publication, the Pine Cone of April 1934 reported the following:

We were glad to have as our guests, Miss Grace K. Willett, Miss Upton and Miss Whitford of the staff of Antioch college the week end of April 13, [1934]. Miss Willett…[is] the associate personnel director of Antioch….


Early student teachers were supervised by Pine Mountain staff member, Margaret Motter, the school principal and teacher at Pine Mountain from 1928 to 1938 and later head of the English department from 1946 to 1949. In her recollections of Pine Mountain School’s relationship with Antioch, Margaret Motter wrote an evaluation of the Antioch program:

I found the co-ops really cooperative. When the first one came I gave him a thorough outline of our school program. I allowed him textbooks [page 8] library facilities, and explained how he could fit into our work. After this he was free to proceed and was encouraged to discuss with me any problems. When the first co-op was relieved he was very helpful in passing on to his successor important information regarding the classwork and other activities. I of course interviewed the new one but I felt it helpful to have the first one turn his work over with his own explanations.

We had a good relationship with the co-ops. Some were better than others, but I think they helped us, and of course we helped them with their practice-teaching. Occasionally we had one who was rather special in adapting himself to the entire school program. John Howard Young, I recall was extremely helpful to me in directing simple dramatizations and in ballad singing. He also loved the folk dancing and was an enthusiastic participant. His part in this was contagious!

I can’t think of any special weaknesses in the Antioch plan. The men came on a six weeks’ tenure, and I consider that a short period for this type of work. Eight weeks might have been better. On the whole I should say I felt the work was satisfactory. I am sure Berea seniors (when they served in the same capacity) must have made a better adjustment because they understood our students.

The Antioch College Co-op at PMSS was a win-win situation for both schools. In its partnership with PMSS, Antioch College had a reliable and highly principled school where the Antioch students could receive hands-on training and to which they might apply for work after graduation. And, in return, welcoming students in the co-op program was an economic advantage to Pine Mountain Settlement School as the cost was far less than a fully salaried instructor. Antioch provided PMSS with a stream of reliable teachers, whether Antioch students in training or graduates. The graduates were testimony to the educational value of the program to both institutions.  Dedicated teachers in training often were brought back to the campus to fill salaried positions of varying responsibility. They were well-educated and eager to learn and engage in the enlightening experience of teaching mountain children. The students at the School, on the other-hand, benefited from the outside perspective and experience of students not much older than themselves who eagerly shared their educational experience.

A remarkable demographic that, however, stands out in the Antioch experience is the small number of women who came to the mountain institution. Yet, those who did, such as Esther Weller Burkhard and Ethel S. Norton, made remarkable and life-time contributions to the institution.


The following is a partial list of Antioch College students who were part of the Antioch College Co-op at PMSS and/or were Antioch graduates hired by PMSS.
(Source: Staff Directory 1913 – present)

L. A. Appleburry, Teacher, 1932-1933.EDUCATION Antioch College Cooperative Education at PMSS

Carl Areson, Power Plant Supervisor and Mechanics Teacher. Antioch graduate at PMSS.

Mrs. Carl Areson, Housemother, 1939-1941. Antioch graduate at PMSS.

Glenn Argetsinger, Student Teacher, 1928-1930. Student Counselor 1937-1940.

Kendall T. Bassett, Teacher, 1926-1928.

        Bennett Gale, Student Teacher, c. 1927-1929.

Richard Chase, Counselor, 1936, 1943-1944.

John Clouse, Staff, 1930-1931.

Albert Conkey, History & Social Studies Teacher, Athletic Director, 1933-1935.

Leonard Doyle, Commercial Teacher, 1933-1934.

McClellan Emersole, Athletic Director, 1925-1926.

James L. Faulkner, Power Plant Supervisor and Mechanics Teacher, 1933-1937. Antioch graduate at PMSS.

Herbert (Harold?) Gough, Staff, 1928-1929.

Ethel S. Norton (Jordan), Teacher, Fifth and Sixth Grades, 1927.

Henry Savage, Staff, 1933-1934.

Helen Schnetzler (Hoeber), Staff, 1933-1934.

George Shoup, Staff, 1931-1932.

Esther Weller (Burkhard), Little School Teacher and Counselor, 1936-1940. Antioch graduate at PMSS.

Everett K. Wilson, Civics, History, Social Science, Athletics Teacher 1935-1940 and Student Counselor 1935-1937. Antioch Co-op and graduate at PMSS.

Mrs. Everett K. (Elizabeth) Wilson, Librarian, 1938-1940.

John Howard Young, Student teacher May 1929 – May 1930; Housefather at Boy’s House and Teacher, Sept. 1937 – June 1939.

GALLERY: Antioch College Cooperative Education at PMSS


 Antioch College Cooperative Education at PMSS

Alt. Title

Antioch College Co-op Program ; Antioch Co-op




Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY

Alt. Creator

Ann Angel Eberhardt ; Helen Hayes Wykle ;

Subject Keyword

Antioch College Co-op at PMSS; Pine Mountain Settlement School ; Antioch College Cooperative Education Program ; off-campus work ; student teachers ; work/study programs ; Katherine Pettit ; Ethel de Long Zande ; Margaret Motter ;

Subject LCSH

Pine Mountain Settlement School (Pine Mountain, Ky.) — History.
Harlan County (Ky.) — History.
Education — Kentucky — Harlan County.
Rural schools — Kentucky — History.
Schools — Appalachian Region, Southern.
Antioch College — History.
Education — Cooperative.




Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY




Collections ; text ; image ;


Original and copies of documents and correspondence in file folders in filing cabinet






Is related to: Pine Mountain Settlement School Collections, Series: EDUCATION.

Coverage Temporal

1920s – 1940

Coverage Spatial

Pine Mountain, KY ; Harlan County, KY ; Yellow Springs, OH ;


Any display, publication, or public use must credit the Pine Mountain Settlement School. Copyright retained by the creators of certain items in the collection, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.




Core documents, correspondence, writings, and administrative papers of Antioch College Co-op at PMSS ; clippings, photographs, books by or about Antioch College Co-op at PMSS ;




“[Identification of Item],” [Collection Name] [Series Number, if applicable]. Pine Mountain Settlement School Institutional Papers. Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY.

Processed By

Helen Hayes Wykle ; Ann Angel Eberhardt ;

Last Updated

2016-07-22 aae ; 2021-08-15 hhw ;  2023-04-14 aae ;



Various files in the PMSS Collection. Series: EDUCATION. Pine Mountain Settlement School Institutional Papers. Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY. Archival material.


Pioneering in Education: The Story of Antioch. Yellow Springs, 1935. Print.

Experiment on Independent Study. Yellow Springs, Ohio, 1961. Print.

Educating for Democracy: A Symposium. Yellow Springs, O: The Antioch Press, 1937. Print.

Campus Unlimited. Yellow Springs, Ohio: Antioch College, 1954. Print.

The Antioch School. Yellow Springs, Ohio, 1922. Print.

A Proposal to Incorporate Manual Training into the Curriculum at Antioch College: In Order to Broaden the Reach of Higher Education. a Report to the Board of Trustees by the Committee Appointed June, 1902. Davenport, Iowa: Egbert, Fidlar & Chambers, Printers, 1902. Print.

Brecht, Greg. Co-op Notebook: Cartoons. Yellow Springs, Ohio: Antioch College, 1968. Print.

Brown, Alice W, and Sandra L. Ballard. Changing Course: Reinventing Colleges, Avoiding Closure. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2011. Print.

Brunson, May A. Integrating Student Personnel Work with the Educational Program of the College Campus. 1957. Print.

Burkhardt, Frederick. Science and the Humanities. Yellow Springs, Ohio: Antioch Press, 1959. Print.

Bush, Dixon. Education for Disadvantaged. 1965. Print.

Butler, Becky. The Effects of World War Ii on the Antioch Community. 1957. Print.

Cattell, James M. K. “Morgan, Pres. Arthur E(rnest): Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio.” Leaders in Education, a Biographical Directory. (1932). Print.

Churchill, Ruth D. Coordinating Educational Assessment Across College Centers. Princeton, NJ: Cooperative Assessment of Experiential Learning, 1976. Print.

Clark, Burton R. The Character of Colleges; Some Case Studies. 1965. Print.

Cornog, Ann R. The History and Philosophy of the Antioch Co-Operative Plan, 1919-1925. 1952. Print.

Denise, Paul S. E, and Ian M. E. Harris. Experiential Education for Community Development. Contributions to The Study of Education, Number 31. Greenwood Press, Inc, 1989. Print.

Engler, Robert K. A Winter of Words: Time Spent at a Working Class College. Philadelphia: Xlibris Corp, 2004. Print.

Fastenberg, Elaine. The Beginnings of Co-Education and Antioch. 1958. Print.

Faust, Clarence H. Toward Understanding American Education. Yellow Springs, Ohio: Antioch Press, 1957. Print.

Gorden, Raymond L. Initial Immersion in the Foreign Culture. Yellow Springs, Ohio: Antioch College, 1968. Print.

Guskin, Alan E, and Alan Bickley. Youth Services and “the Antioch Idea”. Racine, Wis: Johnson Foundation, 1987. Sound recording.

Hartman, Gertrude. The Changing College. Washington: Progressive Education Association, 1927. Print.

Henderson, Algo D, and Dorothy H. Smith. Antioch College: Its Design for Liberal Education. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1946. Print.

Herr, Stephen R. Connected Thoughts: A Reinterpretation of the Reorganization of Antioch College in the 1920s. Lanham, Md: University Press of America, 1997. Print.

Hess, Errol. A Working Bibliography for Education in Appalachia. Huntington, WV: Southern Appalachian Center of Antioch College, 1972. Print.

Keen, Cheryl. “A Study of Changes in Intellectual Development from Freshman to Senior Year at a Cooperative Education College.” Journal of Cooperative Education. 36.3 (2001): 37-45. Print.

Keeton, Morris T. Antioch Restudied: Report on the Carnegie Study of the Antioch Educational Program, 1955-1960. Yellow Springs, Ohio, 1960. Print.

Licht, Phyllis. Education for Society: Antioch College and Yellow Springs, 1921-1932. 1965. Print.

Linn, Patricia L, and Jane Ferguson. “A Lifespan Study of Cooperative Education Graduates: Quantitative Aspects.” Journal of Cooperative Education. 34.3 (1999): 30-41. Print.

Linn, Patricia L, Jane Ferguson, and Katie Egart. “Career Exploration Via Cooperative Education and Lifespan Occupational Choice 1 This Study Was Supported by Research Awards from the Pierson Lovelace Foundation, Cooperative Education and Internship Association, Midwest Cooperative Education and Internship Association, Cooperative Education Division of the American Society for Engineering Education, National Association of Student Employment Administrators, Antioch College Faculty Fund, and a Macarthur Foundation Grant to Antioch College. Thanks to the Graduates Who Participated, Bob Devine, Nina Myatt, Scott Sanders, Charlene Templeman, Jonah Liebert, Rachel Fischer, Toni Severance, and Antioch’s Cooperative Education Faculty. Correspondence Concerning This Article Should Be Addressed to Patricia L. Linn, J.d. Dawson Professor of Cooperative Education, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Oh 45387. Electronic Mail May Be Sent Via Internet to 1.” Journal of Vocational Behavior. 65.3 (2004): 430-447. Print.

Linn, Patricia L. “Learning That Lasts a Lifetime.” Liberal Education. 85.3 (1999): 26-35. Print.

Mann, Horace. Demands of the Age on Colleges. New-York: Fowler and Wells, 1857. Print.

Mathiasen, Otto F. Report on a Study of the General Education Program of Antioch College: Under a Grant from the Rockefeller Foundation, 1952-53. Yellow Springs, Ohio, 1953. Print.

McAndrew, William. Notes on an Educational Pilgrimage to Antioch. Place of publication not identified, 1929. Print.

Morgan, Arhtur E. Education for a New Society. Yellow Springs, Ohio: Antioch College, 1933. Internet resource.

Morgan, Arthur E. An Adventure in Education. Yellow Springs, Ohio: Antioch College, 1930. Print.

Morgan, Arthur E. A Compendium of Antioch Notes. Yellow Springs, O: Kahoe and Co, 1930. Print.

Morgan, Arthur E. Not by Eastern Windows Only: The Dawn of a New Education. Yellow Springs, O.: Antioch college, 1936. Print.

Naylor, Richard A. Arthur E. Morgan’s Philosophy of Work-Study at Antioch College: A Progressive Reformer’s Response to Re-Constructing the Relationship between Work and Education in the Community. 1987. Print.

Newell, L J, Katherine C. Reynolds, Keith Wilson, and E A. Adams. Maverick Colleges: Ten Notable Experiments in American Undergraduate Education. Salt Lake City, Utah: Utah Education Policy Center, Graduate School of Education, the University of Utah, 1993. Print.

Newman, George C. Leadership and the Politics of Innovative Change: Antioch College Under Arthur E. Morgan. Toledo [Ohio: John H. Russell Center for the Study of Higher Education, College of Education and Allied Professions, University of Toledo, 1981. Print.

The Educational Philosophy of Antioch College. Los Angeles: Pacifica Tape Library, 1967. Sound recording.

Purcell, Aaron D. Arthur Morgan: A Progressive Vision for American Reform. 2014. Internet resource.

Rabinowitz, Joni. Joni Rabinowitz Papers. 1961. Archival material.

Sanders, Scott. More of the Glorious, Spurious, Hilarious History of Antioch. Yellow Springs, Ohio: Printed by Copy Depot, 1997. Print.

Sanders, Scott. Antioch: An Episodic History. Yellow Springs, Ohio: Antiochiana, Antioch University, 2004. Print.

Butterweck, Joseph S. Preparing Teachers for Secondary Schools: Report of a Post-Baccalaureate Program Leading to a Master of Education Degree; Pilot Study of an Experimental Program in Teacher Education. Yellow Springs, Ohio: Antioch Press, 1959. Print.

Warmbrunn, Eva. Antioch in the 1930’s. 1955. Print.

Wolff, Katherine V. Co-operative Education and the Depression: Antioch College, 1930-1935. 1965. Print.