BIBLIOGRAPHY Settlement Schools Southern Appalachians

Pine Mountain Settlement School
Settlement Schools Southern Appalachians

BIBLIOGRAPHY Settlement Schools Southern Appalachians

035-Copy. Aerial view of PMSS campus, 1941. [garner_035-Copy]

TAGS: Bibliography of settlement schools, Southern Appalachians, urban settlement movement, social services, Toynbee Hall, Stanton Coit, New York Settlement House, Jane Addams, Hull House, State Federation of Women’s Clubs of Kentucky, Katherine Pettit, Lucy Furman, May Stone

BIBLIOGRAPHY Settlement Schools Southern Appalachians 


Many of the resources in this bibliography of Settlement Schools in the Southern Appalachians focus on the urban settlement movement. Familiarity with this movement is fundamental to an understanding of the rural Settlement Schools of the Southern Appalachians and to rural settlement institutions, generally. 

Most of the settlement houses in the urban movement were founded at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. Nancy Wackstein credits the early programs of Settlement workers for the birth of the profession of social work. The earliest urban settlement houses were in England, with Toynbee Hall in London, founded in 1884 recognized as the first of its type. 

Toynbee Hall is still active today, while many of the houses it spawned in Great Britain and in the United States have ceased their fundamental missions. Social conditions in both the inner cities of this country and many of the rural communities where settlement institutions were born are still studied, but those providing social services now rarely live among those they serve. Few researchers and even fewer historians live or have lived among those challenged by so-called “social ills.”

EVOLUTION of the Rural Settlement Movement

The rural settlement movement largely evolved in the twentieth-century. It started later and persisted longer than many of the urban settlements as living and working within the rural environment perhaps seemed far less hostile than many of the rapidly growing locations in the inner cities of the country, particularly in the largest cities.

When the English founder of the Settlement Movement, Stanton Coit, came to New York to assist in the establishment of the first Settlement House in 1886, he found conditions well documented in the photographs and writing of Jacob Riis. The New York settlement house, (at first known as the Neighborhood Guild and later the University Settlement) was central to the idea of the Settlement Movement in the United States. Jane Addams carried these early ideas into her Chicago Hull House and through her many contacts, her Hull House experiment was carried into the rural settlement movement in the southern Appalachians, particularly eastern Kentucky. [see Suzy E.E. Edelstein’s comments for more information.]

Under the guidance of the State Federation of Women’s Clubs of Kentucky, and the deep commitment of many women in the Federation, the rural settlement movement took root in Eastern Kentucky. Katherine Pettit and May Stone, two stalwart members of the Women’s Club in the Lexington area, pitched their tents near Hazard, Kentucky, and the following year began the process of founding a permanent school in the mountains based on many of the principles of the urban settlement movement. In 1913 Pettit left this first school, Hindman Settlement School, to found another school, the Pine Mountain Settlement School.

 Lucy Furman on the Early Settlement Movement, 1914

Lucy Furman, a writer and early worker at Hindman, wrote about these early efforts in 1914 and generated a wave of interest in women for work in the rural settlements. Furman’s article for Century Magazine about her work and later in her forward to her inspiring novel, Sight to the Blind, she motivated many other women to seek out rural settlement work. Furman wrote:

…While its academic work is excellent, special stress is laid upon the industrial courses, the aim being to fit the children for successful lives in their own beloved mountains. To this end the boys are taught agriculture, carpentry, wood and metalwork, and the rudiments of mechanics; the girls cooking, home-nursing, sewing, laundry work, and weaving, these subjects being learned not only in classes but by doing the actual labor of school and farm.

Aside from educational work proper, various forms of social service are carried on,–district nursing, classes in sanitation and hygiene, social clubs and entertainments for people of all ages, and a department of fireside industries, through which is created an outside market for the beautiful coverlets, blankets and homespun, woven by the mountain women, as well as for their attractive baskets.

When the children trained in our school go out to teach in the district schools, they take with them not only what they have learned in books, but our ideas as to practical living and social service also, each one becoming a center of influence in a new neighborhood.

A feature of the work that deserves special mention is the nursing and hospital department, the ministrations of our trained nurse. Miss Butler [Harriet Butler, later at PMSS], having done more, possibly, than any other one thing, not only to spread a knowledge of sanitation and preventive hygiene but also to establish confidential and friendly relations with the people.” 

… In that period the half-dozen clinics held in the school hospital by Dr. Stucky of Lexington, and his co-workers, have brought direct surgical and other relief to the afflicted of four counties. To be present at one of these clinics is to live Bible days over again, and to see “the lame walk, the deaf hear, the blind receive their sight, and the poor have the good news preached to them.”

And not only this, —these clinics have demonstrated that nearly one-half the people examined have trachoma or other serious eye diseases, and have been the means of awakening the Government to its responsibility in the matter, so that three government hospitals have already been started in the mountains for the treatment of trachoma.

So valuable, in many directions, has been the influence of the Settlement School, that tracts of land have been offered in a number of other mountain counties for similar schools; but so far only one, that at Pine Mountain in Harlan County, has been begun.

An intimate account of life within the Hindman School is given in a recently published book, “Mothering on Perilous,” in which are set forth the joys–and some of the shocks–experienced by the writer in mothering the dozen little mountaineers who, in the early days, shared with her the small boys’ cottage. The real name of the school creek is, of course, Troublesome, not Perilous. …”

October 1914
[The year following the founding of Pine Mountain Settlement School]

BIBLIOGRAPHY Settlement Schools Southern Appalachians:


Addams, Jane. The Subjective Value of a Social Settlement. [United States: s.n., between 1892 and 1894].

Addams, Jane with Seigfried, Charlene Haddock, introd. The Long Road of Woman’s Memory. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2002.

Americans in Process: A Settlement Study / By Residents and Associates of the South End House. Ed. Robert A. Woods. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1902.

College Settlements Association. [New York?: College Settlements Association, 1914].

Denison House. Directory of Clubs and Classes. (Boston, Mass.: s.n.] (Boston, Mass.: Allied Print Trades Council, 1901, 1903).

A History of Social Welfare, Cornell University.

Epworth League House (University settlement), er Hull Street, Boston: A Religious Social Study Revealing the Religious Destitution and Consequent Christian Opportunity and Obligation in a Section of Boston Slums. Boston: Epworth League House Commission, 1894.

Horton, Isabelle. The Burden of the City, 4th ed. New York: F.H. Revell Co., c1904.

Hull-House Maps and Papers: A Presentation of Nationalities and Wages in a Congested District of Chicago: Together with Comments and Essays on Problems Growing Out of the Social Conditions / By Residents of Hull-House, A Social Settlement at 335 South Halsted Street, Chicago, Ill. New York: T.Y. Crowell, c1895.

The Literature of Philanthropy. Ed. Frances Goodale. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1893.

New York Training School for Deaconesses. The Year Book of the New York Training School for Deaconesses. New York: Grace House [1894/1895 and 1896/1897 only].

Social Work of the Church. Philadelphia: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1907.

Smith, M. K. (2003) ‘Robert A. Woods: settlements, neighbourhoods and associations’, the encyclopedia of informal education,

University Settlement Society of New York. Report of the Year’s Work. [New York]: University Settlement Society,-[1896?] ([New York City]: Concord Print. Co.).

University Settlement Society of New York. Report for the Year. [New York]: University Settlement Society of New York, [1897?] (New York City: Concord Co-operative Print. Co.).

University Settlement Society of New York. Annual Report of the University Settlement Society of New York (Incorporated). [New York]: University Settlement Society of New York. Volumes 24th-25th (1910-1911).

Wald, Lillian. The House on Henry Street. New York: H. Holt and Co., 1915.

Woods, Robert. A. and Kennedy, A. J. (eds.) (1911) Handbook of Settlements, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Woods, Robert. The Settlement Horizon: A National Estimate. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.

Woods, Robert. A. (1891) English Social Movements, New York: C. Scribner’s Sons.

Woods, Robert. A. and others (1895) The poor in great cities: their problems and what is doing to solve them, New York: C. Scribner’s Sons,

Woods, Robert. A. (ed.) (1898) The City Wilderness. A study of the South End, Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Co.

Woods, Robert. A. (ed.) (1902) Americans in Process: a settlement study of the North and West Ends by residents and associates of the South End House, Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Co.

Woods, Robert. A. and Kennedy, A. J. (eds.) (1911) Handbook of Settlements, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Woods, Robert. A. and Kennedy, A. J. (1913) Young working girls; a summary of evidence from two thousand social workers, ed. for the National Federation of Settlements with an introduction by Jane Addams, Boston, New York, Houghton Mifflin Company

BIBLIOGRAPHY Settlement Schools Southern Appalachians:


Addams, Jane. My friend, Julia Lathrop. New York, NY: Arno Press, 1974, c1935.

Addams, Jane. Democracy and social ethics. New York, NY: The Macmillan Company, 1902.

Addams, Jane. A new conscience and an ancient evil. With introduction by Katherine Joslin.  Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2002.

Addams, Jane.  Newer ideals of peace. Chautauqua, NY: The Chautauqua press, 1907.

Addams, Jane.  The excellent becomes the permanent. New York, NY: Macmillan, 1932.

Addams, Jane.  The second twenty years at Hull-House, September 1909 to September 1929, with a record of a growing world consciousness. New York, NY: The Macmillan company, 1930

Addams, Jane.  Philanthropy and social progress; seven essays, by Jane Addams [and others] delivered before the School of Applied Ethics at Plymouth, Mass., during the session of 1892. Freeport, NY: Books for Library Press 1969.

Anticaglia, Elizabeth.  12 American women. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall, 1975. See chapter: “Jane Addams.” by Elizabeth Anticaglia.

Ardis, Ann L. and Leslie W. Lewis, eds.  Women’s experience of modernity, 1875-1945.Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

Atkins, Jonathon M. “Philanthropy in the Mountains: Martha Berry and the Early Years of the Berry Schools.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 82 (1998): 856-876.

Audirac, Ivonne. Rural sustainable development in America. New York: John Wiley & Sons, c1997

Barbuto, Domenica M. American settlement houses and progressive social reform: an encyclopedia of the American settlement movement. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1999.

Bailyn, Bernard. Education in the Forming of American Society: Needs and Opportunities for Study. New York: Vintage Books, 1960.

Batteau, Allen, ed. Appalachia and America: autonomy and regional dependence. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, c1983.

Boyte, Harry C.  Everyday politics: reconnecting citizens and public life. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004. (See article: “The Jane Addams School for Democracy.” by Harry C. Boyte. )

Bradley, William Aspenwall. Old Christmas and Other Kentucky Tales. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company, 1917.

Bremner, Robert H. From the Depths: The Discovery of Poverty in the United States. New York: New York: New York University Press, 1956.

Bryan, Mary Lynn McCree and Nancy Slote, et al. The Jane Addams papers: a comprehensive guide. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.

Bryan, Mary Lynn McCree and Barbara Bair, et al. The selected papers of Jane Addams.Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2003-.

Cahill, Susan, ed., Writing women’s lives: an anthology of autobiographical narratives by twentieth century American women writers. New York, NY: HarperPerennial, 1994. See chapter: “Jane Addams (1860-1935).” by Jane Adams.

Chambers, Clarke A. Seedtime of Reform.: American Social Service and Social Action, 1918-1933. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1963. (Revised 1967).

Coit, Stanton. Neighbourhood guilds: an instrument of social reform.  London, England: S. Sonnenschein & Co., 1892.

Crocco, Margaret Smith and O.L. Davis, Jr. Bending the future to their will”: civic women, social education, and democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.Munro, Petra. (See chapter: Widening the circle’: Jane Addams, gender, and the re/definition of democracy.” by Petra Munro.)

Crocker, Ruth Hutchinson. Social work and social order: the settlement movement in two industrial cities, 1889-1930. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

Cullen-DuPont, ed. American women activists’ writings: an anthology, 1637-2002. New York, NY: Cooper Square Press, 2002. [See chapter on “Jane Adams,”]

Clark, Judith Freeman. The Gilded Age, Revised edition. New York, NY: Facts On File, 2006.

Cusick, Philip A. A passion for learning: the education of seven eminent Americans. New York, NY: Teachers College Press, 2005. (One of the seven is Jane Addams.)

D’Amico, Francine and Peter R. Beckman. Women in world politics: an introduction. Westport, CN: Bergin & Garvey, 1995. (See chapter: “Jane Addams: the chance the world missed.” by Sybil Oldfield.

Davis, Allen Freeman.  Spearheads for reform; the social settlements and the progressive movement, 1890-1914. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Davis, Allen Freeman. American heroine: the life and legend of Jane Addams. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Diliberto, Gioia.  A useful woman: the early life of Jane Addams. New York, NY: Scribner, 1999.

Dobschuetz, Barbara Louise, Ph.D. Fundamentalism and American urban culture: Community and religious identity in Dwight L. Moody’s Chicago, 1864–1914. University of Illinois at Chicago, 2002

Dotson-Lewis, B.L. Appalachia: Spirit Triumphant: a cultural odyssey of Appalachia.West Conshohocken, PA : Infinity, c2004

Elshtain, Jean Bethke.  Jane Addams and the dream of American democracy: a life. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2002.

Fabricant, Michael B. and Robert Fisher. Settlement houses under siege: the struggle to sustain community organizations in New York City. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Fisher, Stephen L., ed.  Fighting Back in Appalachia: Traditions of Resistance and Change. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1993. [See chapter: Glen, John M. “Like a Flower Slowly Blooming: Highlander and the Nurturing of an Appalachian Movement.”pp.31-55.]

French, Peter A. and Howard K. Wettstein, et al, eds.  The American philosophers. Boston, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2004. (See chapter: “Jane Addams: Patriotism in Time of War. by Scott L. Prat.) (See also section on Josiah Royce)

Furman, Lucy.  Sight to the Blind. N.Y., McMillan 1914,  Introducation by Ida Tarbell

Furman, Lucy. Mothering on Perilous

Furman, Lucy.  

Gavit, John Palmer.  Bibliography of college, social, and university settleme.nts. [Compiled by J.P Gavit for the College Settlements Association], 1897. Link:

Goodrich, Frances Louisa, “Old Ways and New in the Carolina Mountains,” Southern Workman, April 1900, 211. [Allanstand]

Gifford, James M. “Cora Wilson Stewart and the Moonlight School Movement.” in Appalachia/America. Ed. Wilson Somer Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium Press, 1981. 169-178.

Green, Shannon Louise, Ph.D. Art for life’s sake”: Music schools and activities in United States social settlements, 1892–1942. The University of Wisconsin – Madison, 1998, 314 pages

Hawkins, Gaynell. Educational experiments in social settlements. New York, NY: American Association for Adult Education, 1937.

Hamington, Maurice. Embodied care: Jane Addams, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and feminist ethics. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2004.

Hendrickson, Mary Ruth. Role of the New York City settlement houses in the education of immigrant women, 1890–1920. St. John’s University (New York), 2001

Hillman, Arthur.  Neighborhood centers today, action programs for a rapidly changing world; report of a survey. New York, NY: National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers, 1960.

Holden, Cort.  The Settlement Idea. New York, NY: Arno Press, 1970, c1922.

Hull-House maps and papers. New York, NY: Arno Press, 1970, c1895.

Jackson, Shannon. Lines of activity: performance, historiography, Hull-House domesticity. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2000.

Jacob A. Riis, The Making of an American (London: Macmillan, 1970)

Jass, Stephanie J. Recipes for Reform: Americanization and foodways in Chicago settlement houses, 1890–1920. Western Michigan University, 2004

Karger, Howard Jacob. The sentinels of order: a study of social control and the Minneapolis settlement house movement, 1915-1950. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1987.

Knight, Louise W. Citizen: Jane Addams and the struggle for democracy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Lagemann, Ellen Condliffe, ed.  Jane Addams on education. New York, NY: Teachers College Press, 1985.

Lasch, Christopher, ed.  The social thought of Jane Addams. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965

Lasch-Quinn, Elisabeth. Black neighbors: race and the limits of reform in the American settlement house movement, 1890-1945. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Levine, Daniel. Jane Addams and the liberal tradition. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1971.

Lloyd, Jim and Anne G. Campbell, eds. The Impact of Institutions in Appalachia. Boone, NC: Appalachian Consortium Press, 1986. [See: Forderhase, Nancy. “Settlement School Goes to the Public: Pine Mountain School’s Community Centers at Big Laurel and Line Fork, 1919-1940.” pp. 88-99.]

Lotz, Philip Henry.  Women leaders. New York, NY: Association Press, 1946, ©1940. (See chapter: “Jane Addams: pioneer in social justice and peace.” by Edna M. Baxter. )

Longo, Nicholas Vito, Jr., Ph.D. Reaching Beyond the Schools: The role of community in civic education. University of Minnesota, 2005.

Mapes, Mary Lynne. Visions of a Christian city: The politics of religion and gender in Chicago’s city missions and Protestant settlement houses, 1886-1929. Michigan State University, 1998.

McBride, Paul. Culture clash: immigrants and reformers, 1880-1920. San Francisco, CA: R and E Research Associates, 1975.

Madoo Lengermann, Patricia and Jill Niebrugge-Brantley, eds.  The women founders: sociology and social theory, 1830-1930: a text/reader. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 1998. See chapter: “Jane Addams (1860-1935: Sociology, Ethics and Capitalist Society, Excerpts from “The Settlement as a Factor in the Labor Movement” (Hull-House Maps and Papers-1895).”

Mays, Carl. People of passion: stories of faith and determination that will touch your heart and warm your soul: spotlighting Southern Appalachia representing America.Johnson City, Tenn. : The Overmountain Press, c2004.

Meacham, Standish. Toynbee Hall and social reform, 1880-1914: the search for community.  New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1987.

Meacham, Standish. Toynbee Hall and social reform, 1880-1914: the search for community.  New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1987.

Northrup, Flora L. The Record of a Century, 1834-1934.(New York: American Female Guardian Society and Home for the Friendless, 1934), p. 17.

Nutter, Kathleen Banks, Ph.D. ‘The necessity of organization’: Mary Kenney O’Sullivan, the American Federation of Labor, and the Boston Women’s Trade Union League, 1892-1919. University of Massachusetts Amherst, 1998.

O’Rourke, Bridget Kathleen, Ph.D. Meanings and practices of literacy in urban settlement communities: Chicago’s Hull House, 1890-1940. Purdue University, 1998.

Painter, Jacqueline Burgin. The Season of Dorland-Bell: History of an Appalachian Mission School. Asheville: Painter, 1987.

Pestritto, Ronald J. and Thomas G. West. Challenges to the American founding: slavery, historicism, and progressivism in the nineteenth century.  Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2005. (See chapter: “Jane Addams, Benjamin Franklin, and the problem of welfare dependency.” by Joel Schwartz.

Pacey, Lorene M. Readings in the Development of Settlement Work. New York: New York Association Press, 1950.

Pagano, Mary Josephine, D.M.A. The history of the Third Street Music School Settlement, 1891-1984. Music school and social settlement: The dual identity of the original music school settlement. Manhattan School of Music, 1996.

Piott, Steven L. American reformers, 1870-1920: progressives in word and deed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006. See chapter “Jane Addams and the settlement house idea.” by Steven Piott.

Rose, Judith, Ed.D. Be anybody, be somebody! Changing the lives of immigrant and working-class women. The role of adult education at a settlement house. Northern Illinois University, 1997.

Sklar, Kathryn Kish and Anja Schuler and Susan Strasser. Social justice feminists in the United States and Germany: a dialogue in documents, 1885-1933. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Streiff, Meg, Ph.D. Boston’s settlement housing: Social reform in an industrial city.Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College, 2005.

Skok, Deborah Ann, Ph.D. Catholic ladies bountiful: Chicago’s Catholic settlement houses and day nurseries, 1892–1930. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2001.

Salzman-Fiske, Ellen. Secular religion and social reform: Felix Adler’s educational ideas and programs, 1876-1933. Columbia University, 1999.

Smith, Hilda L. and Berenice A. Carroll, eds.  Women’s Political & Social Thought: an Anthology. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2000.

Spalding, Arthur W.  The men of the mountains; The story of the southern mountaineer and his kin of the Piedmont; with an account of some of the agencies of progress among them, (Unknown Binding – 1915).

Sheldon, Sayre P., ed. Her war story: twentieth-century women write about war.Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999. See chapter: “From Peace and bread in time of war.” by Jane Adams.

Stebner, Eleanor J. The Women of Hull House: a study in spirituality, vocation, and friendship. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1997.

Stoddart, Jess. Challenge and Change in Appalachia: The Story of Hindman Settlement School. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 2002.

Stoddart, Jess, ed. The Quare Women’s Journals: May Stone & Katherine Pettit’s Summers in the Kentucky Mountains and the Founding of the Hindman Settlement School. Ashland, KY: Stuart, 1997.

Schwartz, William and Serapio R. Zalba, eds. The practice of group work. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1971. (See chapter: “The neighborhood: The settlement house, mediator for the poor.” By B. E. Farris, G. Murillo, and W. M. Hale.)

Shumsky, Neil Larry. Encyclopedia of urban America: the cities and suburbs. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1998.

Silverberg, Helene. Gender and American social science: the formative years. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Sloop, Mary T. Miracle in the Hills: the lively personal story of a woman doctor’s forty-year crusade in the mountains of North Carolina. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1953.

Smelser, Neil J. and Paul B. Baltes, eds. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. Amsterdam, Netherlands; New York, NY: Elsevier/ScienceDirect, 2001. [See chapter on “Urban Ethnography.”]

Somer, Wilson. Appalachia/America: proceedings of the 1980 Appalachian Studies Conference.  Appalachian Studies Conference. (3rd: 1980: East Tennessee State University) [Johnson City, TN: Appalachian Consortium Press, 1981] See article: Gifford, James M. “Cora Wilson Stewart and the Moonlight School Movement.” pp.169-178.

Taylor, Bob Pepperman.  Citizenship and democratic doubt: the legacy of progressive thought. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2004.

Taylor, Graham Romeyn, ed.  Satellite cities; a study of industrial suburbs. New York, NY: Arno Press, 1970, ©1915. (See chapter: “A modern Lear.” A parenthetical chapter by Jane Addams.)

Trolander, Judith Ann. Settlement houses and the Great Depression. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1975.

Trolander, Judith Ann. Professionalism and social change: from the settlement house movement to neighborhood centers, 1886 to the present. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1987.

Ungar, Cara-lynn Michelle, Ph.D. Black and Jewish working-class (im)migrant women speak the nation: Rhetoric and pedagogy in Americanization practices, 1890–1930.Miami University, 2000.

Wade., Louise Carrol (2004). Settlement HousesEncyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Retrieved 22 June 2009. [wikipedia]

Woods, Robert Archey. The neighborhood in nation-building; the running comment of thirty years at the South End house. Boston, MA and New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin company, 1923.

Zurcher, Louis A. and Alvin E. Green, et al. From dependency to dignity; individual and social consequences of a neighborhood house. New York, NY: Behavioral Publications, 1969.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Settlement Schools Southern Appalachians:


The mountaineers: Our own lost tribes by Rollin Lynde Hartt (Unknown Binding- 1918)

Addams, Jane.  “Why the Ward Boss Rules.” Outlook. Vol. 62, (April 2, 1898), pp. 879-882.

Ambler, C. H.  “Alderson-Broaddus College,” West Virginia History, VI (July 1945), 361-372

Ambler, C.H. “Public Education in Monroe County, (West) Virginia, 1819-1861),” West Virginia History, IV (October 1942), 25-36

Anderson, E. “Urban Ethnography.” Chapter In: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. Editors in chief Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes. Amsterdam, Netherlands; New York, NY: Elsevier/ScienceDirect, 2001.

Andrews, J.  “Helen Hall and the Settlement House Movement’s response to unemployment: reaching out to the community.” Journal of Community Practice. Vol. 4, No. 2, (1997), pp. 65-75.

Atkins, Jonathan M. “Philanthropy in the Mountains: Martha Berry and the Early Years of the Berry Schools,” Georgia Historical Quarterly, LXXXII (Winter 1998), 856-876

Austin, Brad. “College Would Be a Dead Old Dump Without IT: Intercollegiate Athletics in East Tennessee.

“During the Depression Era,” Journal of East Tennessee History, LXIX (1997), 29-61.

Baker, Mary. The social and economic conditions among the Southern mountaineers  Unknown Binding – 1939).

Banker, Mark. “Warren Wilson College: From Mountain Mission to Multicultural Community,” American Presbyterians, LXXIII (Summer 1995), 111-123.

Barney, Sandra. Maternalism and the Promotion of Scientific Medicine During the Industrial Transformation of Appalachia, 1880-1930 NWSA Journal – Volume 11, Number 3, Fall 1999, pp. 68-92. During the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries rural Appalachian life was fundamentally challenged by the intrusion of industrial capitalism. While historians have illustrated the complexities of these developments in the areas of labor and economic history, little has been done to document the importance of gender in the reconstruction of Appalachian customs and traditions. By focusing on the role of women volunteers and settlement workers in the promotion of scientific medicine, this article argues for a recognition of women as active agents who labored to impart the expectations and presumptions of an increasingly professionalized and bureaucratized medical system to rural people. Driven by maternalist concerns and professional and class ambitions, women activists were key players in encouraging rural Appalachian residents to redefine their fundamental understandings of health and of their relationship to their healers. In recent years scholars have produced an increasingly sophisticated historiography describing the actions of Appalachian women during the Progressive Era. Brought to public attention in the 1980s by the…

Beck, John P. “Highlander Folk School’s Junior Union Camps, 1940-1944,” Labor’s Heritage, V (Spring 1993), 28-41

Best, Bill. “Project Torchlight: Thirty Years Later,” Appalachian Heritage, XXV (Summer 1997), 7-16

Birdwhistell, Terry L. “Divided We Fall: State College and the Normal School Movement in Kentucky, 1880-1910.” Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 88 (1990): 431-456.

1910,” Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, LXXXVIII (Autumn 1990), 431-456

Boris, Eileen.Crafts Shop or Sweatshop? The Uses and Abuses of Craftsmanship in Twentieth Century America, Journal of Design History, Vol. 2, No. 2/3 (1989), pp. 175-192. Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of Design History Society.

Boyd, Tom. “Progress Is Our Most Important Product: Decline in Citizen Participation and the Professionalization of Schooling in an Appalachian Rural County,” in Sam Gray (ed.), The Many Faces of Appalachia (Boone: Appalachian Consortium Press, 1985), 107-124

Boyd, Tom and Alan J. De Young, “Experts vs. Amateurs: The Irony of School Consolidation in Jackson County, Kentucky,” Appalachian Journal, XIII (Spring 1986), 275-283.

Campbell, Roberta and Alan J. De Young, “A Bridge or a Barrier? Assessing the Usefulness of Public Education for Individual Success in an East Tennessee County,” Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association, II (1990), 155-174Merle T. Cole and Donald R. Davis, “Doctus et Ductor: President Smith and ROTC at Marshall University,” West Virginia History, LVII (1998), 111-134

Cole, Pam B.”Southwest Virginia High School Graduates: Crossing Cultural Terrains in the Univ. Setting,” Journal of the Appalachian Studies Association, VII (1995), 121-130

Carleson, Robert A.  “Americanization as an Early Twentieth-Century Adult Education Movement.” History of Education Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 4 (Winter, 1970), pp. 440-464 [Published by: History of Education Society]

Daingerfield, Henderson. “Social Settlement and Educational Work in the Kentucky Mountains,” Journal of Social Science, XXXIX (November 1901), 176-181.

Dawley, Thomas Robinson. Our Southern mountaineers: Removal the remedy for the evils that isolation and poverty have brought: some results of a first-hand investigation by Thomas Robinson (Unknown Binding – 1910)

de Long, Ethel. “The Far Side of Pine Mountain,” Survey, XXXVII (March 3, 1917) 627-629.

de Long, Ethel.  “Doings on Troublesome,” Smith Alumnae Quarterly, (November 1912) 17-22.

De Young, Alan J. and Julia Damron Porter, “Multicultural Education in Appalachia: Origins, Prospects and Problems,” Appalachian Journal, VII (Autumn 1979), 124-134

De Young, Alan J.”The Status of Formal Education in Central Appalachia,” Appalachian Journal, X (Summer 1983), 321-334

Douglas, Paul. “Cradle of the Copperheads: Education and the Career of Jesse Stuart,”Appalachian Journal, V (Spring 1988), 224-237

Drake, Richard B., “Berea’s Appalachian Commitment,” Appalachian Heritage, XXVI (Summer 1998), 6-21

Fisher, R. and M. Fabricant.  “From Henry Street to contracted services: financing the settlement house.” Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. Vol. 29, No. 3, (September 2002), pp. 3-27.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke.  “Jane Addams and the Social Claim.” Public Interest. Issue. 145 (Fall, 2001), pp. 82-93.

England, Rhonda George. Voices From the History of Teaching: Katherine Pettit, May Stone and Elizabeth Watts at Hindman Settlement School 1899-1956. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Kentucky, 1990. [Not a particularly well-argued scholarly work, in the view of some, but it contains substantial information from the correspondence and diary of Pettit and from Elizabeth Watts.]

Folmsbee, Stanley J. “The Early History of the University of Tennessee,” East Tennessee Historical Society’s Publications, XLII (1970), 3-19

Forderhase, Nancy. “Settlement School Goes to the People: Pine Mountain School’s Community Centers at Big Laurel and Line Fork, 1919-1940,” in Jim Lloyd and Anne G. Campbell (eds.), The Impact of Institutions in Appalachia (Boone: Appalachian Consortium Press, 1986), 88-99

Forderhase, Nancy. “Eve Returns to the Garden: Women Reformers in Appalachian Kentucky in the Early Twentieth Century.” Register of the Kentucky Historical Society. v. 85. no. 3. 1987, p. 237-261.

Forderhase, Nancy. “Perception of a Hinterland: Women’s Travel Journals, 1908-1916.” An analysis of the ambivalent reaction of middle-class. [SOURCE??]

Friedman, Michael; Friedman, Brett (1 January 2006). Settlement Houses: Improving the Social Welfare of America’s Immigrants. Rosen Classroom. pp. 4–7. ISBN 978-1-4042-0859-9.

Progressive Era women to the land and people of Appalachia.” Paper for the 1997 Appalachian Studies Association meeting at Pine Mountain State Park in Pineville KY. The program theme was “The Spectrum of American Studies.”

Forderhase, Nancy, “Limited Only by Earth and Sky”: The Louisville Woman’s Club and Progressive Reform,” Filson Club Quarterly, July 1985.

Friedman, Ellen. “The Role of Settlement Schools in Southern Appalachia,” (1973): 11.ERIC database (accessed December 8, 2008).

Gaventa, John. “Appalachian Studies in Global Context: Reflections on the Beginnings—Challenges for the Future,” Journal of Appalachian Studies, VIII (Spring 2002), 79-90

Gifford, James M., “Cora Wilson Stewart and the Moonlight School Movement,” in Wilson Sommerville (ed.), Appalachia America (Boone: Appalachian Consortium Press, 1981), 169-178.

Glen, John M., “Like a Flower Slowly Blooming: Highlander and the Nurturing of an Appalachian Movement,” in Stephen L. Fisher (ed.), Fighting Back in Appalachia: Traditions of Resistance and Change (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993), pp. 31-55.

Green, Shanon L. “Controversy and Conflict in the Henry Street Settlement Music School, 1927-1935.” Women and Music: A Journal of Gender and Culture. Vol. 8, (2004), pp. 73-85.

Hamilton, Michael. Ministry to the Southern mountaineer: A report of the research work done by the Church of the Advent in the neighborhood of Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio, August 1955 to August 1958 (Unknown Binding – 1958)

Hirsch, Nathaniel David Mttron. An experimental study of the east Kentucky mountaineers;: A study in heredity and environment, (Genetic psychology monographs) (Unknown Binding – 1928)

Hughes, C. Alvin. “A New Agenda for the South: The Role and Influence of the Highlander Folk School, 1953-1961.” Phylon 46 (1985): 242-250.

Ikenberry, Stanley O. “Educational Reform in Appalachia: Problems of Relevance, Strategy and Priority,” in John D. Photiadis and Harry K. Schwarzweller (ed.), Change in Rural Appalachia: Implications for Action Programs (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970), pp. 195-206.

Ingram, Frances MacGregor. “The Settlement Movement in the South,” World Outlook, May 1937.

Johnson, Alice K. “Social Work Is Standing on the Legacy of Jane Addams: But Are We Sitting on the Sidelines? (commentary).” Social Work. Vol. 49, No. 2 (April 2004), pp. 319-322.

Karger, H.J.  “Minneapolis settlement houses in the ‘not so roaring 20’s’: Americanization, morality, and the revolt against popular culture.” Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare.Vol. 14, No. 2, (June 1987), pp. 89-110.

Karger, Howard Jacob. “Phyllis Wheatley House: A History of the Minneapolis Black Settlement House, 1924 to 1940.” Phylon. Vol. 47, No. 1, (1st Quarter, 1986), pp. 79-90.

Keating, W.D.  “Neighborhood Revitalization and Community Development.” Chapter in: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. Editors in chief, Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Balthes. Amsterdam, Netherlands; New York, NY: Elsevier/ScienceDirect, 2001. [Good discussion of settlement houses in urban areas.]

Kirkland, Winifred.  “Mountain Music .” The Outlook. New York, 1919. 4. v. 123, p. 593.

Klein, Milton M. “Academic Freedom at the University of Tennessee: The McCarthy Era,”Journal of East Tennessee History, LXIX (1997), 62-83.

Knijnik, Gelsa. “Ethnomathematics and Political Struggle,” ZDM [International Journal of Mathematics Education, Volume 30, Number 6 / December 1998, 188-194 863-9690 (Print) 1863-9704 (Online), Accessed: Saturday, November 22, 2008.

Koerin, Beverly.  “The settlement house tradition: current trends and future concerns.”Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. Vol. 30, No. 2, (June 2003), pp. 53-68.

Kousser, J. Morgan. “Making Separate Equal: Integration of Black and White School Funds in Kentucky,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History, X (Winter 1980), 399-428.

Kramer, Loren W.  Student manpower resources in Kentucky: college and university programs for work-learning in Kentucky Corp Author: Berea College., Work-Study Development Project. Berea Ky. : Work-Study Development Project, Office of the Dean of Labor, Berea College, 1974.

Kramer, Loren W.  Settlement institutions in Southern Appalachia. Settlement institutions in Southern Appalachia, Atlanta: Southern Regional Education Board, 1969], 96 p. : map; 28 cm.

Lalik, Rosary and LaNette Dellinger, “Using Appalachian Literacies for Literary Learning at School: A Study of a Teacher-Authored Project,” Journal of Appalachian Studies, VII (Spring 2001), 93-103.

Luker, Ralph E. “Missions, Institutional Churches, and Settlement Houses: The Black Experience, 1885-1910.” The Journal of Negro History. Vol. 69, No. 3/4, (Summer, 1984), pp. 101-113.

Moore, Dorothea. “A Day at Hull House.” The American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 2, No. 5 (March 1897), pp. 629-642.

Nelson, Paul D. “Experiment in Interracial Education at Berea College, 1858-1908,” Journal of Negro Education, LIX (January 1974), 13-27

Ogawa, Manako.  ” ‘Hull-House’ in Downtown Tokyo: the Transplantation of a Settlement House from the United States into Japan and the North American Missionary Women, 1919–1945.” Journal of World History. Vol. 15, No. 3, (September 2004), pp. 359-387.

Perrine, Frederic A. C. “The Scientific Aspect of the University Settlement Movement.”Science. Vol. 21, No. 524 (February 1893), pp. 91-92.

Phillips, J.O.C. “The Education of Jane Addams.” History of Education Quarterly. Vol. 14, No. 1, Reinterpreting Women’s Education (Spring, 1974), pp. 49-67.

Pitaro, Francesca, “Guide to the Jacob Riis Papers” (Manuscripts and Archives Division, New York Public Library, 1985; available online as PDF file here).

Rambo, Marion G.  The “submerged tenth” among the Southern mountaineers (Unknown Binding – 1905).

Ravitz, Mel J.  “Some Socio-Demographic Considerations in Settlement House Relocation.”Journal of Educational Sociology. Vol. 29, No. 8, (Apil, 1956), pp. 353-356.

Reed, Ira. “The Church College in Central Appalachia,” in Bill J. Leonard (ed.),Christianity in Appalachia: Profiles in Regional Pluralism (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1999), 73-90.

Rice, Connie L. “The Separate but Equal Schools of Monogalia County’s Coal Mining Communities,” Journal f Appalachian Studies, II (Fall 1996), 323-335

Rogers, Kathee. “A Campus Called Home: The West Virginia Schools for the Deaf and the Blind,” Goldenseal: West Virginia Traditional Life, XXVIII (Fall 2002), 10-21

Rosenfeld, Stuart A. “Rural Community Colleges: Creating Institutional Hybrids for the New Economy,” Rural America, XVI (Summer 2001), 2-25

Rousmaniere, John P. “Cultural Hybrid in the Slums: The College Woman and the Settlement House, 1889-1894.” American Quarterly. Vol. 22, No. 1, (Spring, 1970), pp. 45-66.

Sklar, Kathryn Kish. “Hull House in the 1890s: A Community of Women Reformers.”Signs. Vol. 10, No. 4, Communities of Women (Summer, 1985), pp. 658-677.

Sayles, Rebecca A.  “Cultural development in an immigrant community: Arts education through the settlement movement.” Journal of Arts Management, Law & Society. Vol. 23, No. 1, (Spring, 1993), pp. 15-25.

Schott, Linda. “Jane Addams and William James on Alternatives to War.” Journal of the History of Ideas. Vol. 54, No. 2, (April 1993), pp. 241-254.

Schwartz, A. “Americanization and cultural preservation in Seattle’s Settlement House: A Jewish adaptation of the Anglo-American model of settlement work.” Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. Vol. 26, No. 3, (September 1999), pp. 25-47.

Stuart, Paul H. “The Kingsley House Extension Program: Racial segregation in a 1940s settlement program.” Social Service Review. Vol. 66, No. 1, (March 1992), pp. 112-120.

Siegel, Eli, “Aesthetic Realism: A Tripartite Study”, The Right of Aesthetic Realism to Be Known, no. 247, (Dec 1977). [re: Jacob Riis]

Shapiro, E.S. “Robert A. Woods and the Settlement House Impulse.” Social Service Review. Vol. 52, No. 2, (1978), pp. 215-226.

Schwarzweller, Harry K. and James S. Brown, “Education as a Cultural Bridge between Appalachian Kentucky and the Great Society,” in John D. Photiadis and Harry K. Schwarzweller (eds.), Change in Rural Appalachia: Implications for Action Programs (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970), 129-146

Searles, P. David. “Dissension among the Do-Gooders: Alice Lloyd and Her Critics in Appalachia,” Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, XCIII (Spring 1995), 180-206

Schmitzer, Jeanne Cannella. “Reaching Out to the Mountains: The Pack Horse Library of Eastern Kentucky, Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, XCV (Winter 1997), 57-77

Walker, Natlie. “Chicago Housing Conditions. X. Greeks and Italians in the Neighborhood of Hull House.” The American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 21, No. 3 (November 1915), pp. 285-316.

Talen, Emily. “School, Community, and Spatial Equity: An Empirical Investigation of Access to Elementary Schools in West Virginia,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, XCI (Sept. 2001), 465-486

Wilson, Shannon H. “Lincoln’s Sons and Daughters: Berea College, Lincoln Memorial University, and the Myth of Unionist Appalachia, 1866-1910,” in Kenneth W. Noe and Wilson (eds.), The Civil War in Appalachia: Collected Essays (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997), pp. 242-264.

Williams, Frank B. Jr. “East Tennessee State University–The Beginning,” Tennessee Historical Quarterly, XLIX (Winter 1990), 218-229

Wilson, Shannon H., “Window on the Mountains: Berea’s Appalachia, 1870-1930,” Filson Club History Quarterly, LXIV (July 1990), 384-400.

Woods, Roy C. “The Normal Training High School Movement in West Virginia.” West Virginia History 15 (1954): 321-332.

Yan, Miu C.  “Bridging the fragmented community: revitalizing settlement houses in the global era.” Journal of Community Practice. Vol. 12, No. 1-2, (October 2004), pp. 51-69.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Settlement Schools Southern Appalachians:


American Women’s History- Settlement Houses- A Research Guide British Association of Settlements and Social Action Centres (BASSAC)

East Side House Settlement Grand Street Settlement Henry Street Settlement

Houchen Settlement House. Houchen Settlement House, located at the corner of Fifth and Tays Streets [in El Paso], began in 1893 when Mary Tripp started providing homes for young single immigrant girls.”

In the Vicinity of Hull-House and the Maxwell Street Market, Chicago, 1889-1935- An Historical Study

Jane Addams Hull House Association

The Jane Addams Hull-House Museum

Lillian Wald and Settlement Houses- City University of New York’s Women’s Leadership in American History

Mary McDowell and Chicago Settlement Houses in the online _Encyclopedia of Chicago_

P.S. 126 The Jacob Riis Community School Social Work in Settlements  (N.Y. Settlement House)

Settlement Movement

Teaching History Online: “Jacob Riis”.

Toynbee Hall United Neighborhood Houses

University Settlement

Urban Experience in Chicago- Hull-House and Its Neighborhoods, 1889-1963

Welcome to Jacob A. Riis Neighborhood Settlement House at

Whittier House- A settlement house founded by Cornelia Foster Bradford in 1893

Highlander Research and Education Center (Highlander Folk School, New Market, TN, 1932)

Southern Poverty Law Center (Founded 1971)

See Also:
SETTLEMENT INSTITUTIONS OF APPALACHIA Inc. Brochure 1970 Serving in Appalachia
SETTLEMENT SCHOOLS of the Southern Appalachians LIST (Password Protected)

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