Pine Mountain Settlement School
Series 21: Guidance Institute
RURAL YOUTH GUIDANCE INSTITUTE 1937 Recommendations
TAGS: recommendations for Rural Youth Guidance Institute 1937, vocational education, vocational guidance, agriculture as a vocation, vocational counseling, Southern Womens Educational Alliance, Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth, vocational placement bureaus, changing times, Glyn Morris, Harlan County Schools, James Cawood
CONTENTS: Rural Youth Guidance Institute 1937 Recommendations
A PROGRAM RECOMMENDED TOWARDS MEETING VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE NEEDS OF RURAL YOUTH
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THOSE IN THE LESS PRIVILEGED RURAL AREAS
Prepared for the President’s Committee on Vocational Education, at the request of Its Vocational Guidance Consultant, By the Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth, March 1937.
Alliance for Guidance of Rural Youth, Formerly Southern Woman’s (sic) Educational Alliance, 401-02 Grace-American Building, Richmond, Virginia
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A PROGRAM RECOMMENDED TOWARDS MEETING VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE NEEDS OF RURAL YOUTH: PREFATORY
“…agriculture is basic and should be fostered: but, its limitations are many. … agriculture has been a declining occupation since 1870. … “
The only hope for rural living and keeping young people in rural areas is the opening up of small possibilities other than farming and expanding on them through adequate vocational guidance training and placement.
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“… [New] occupational developments … are developing in a variety of directions … [but] lost by rural youth because they and their elders lack the occupational information… [and] lack of rural occupational research into such situations ….” Young people are on the sidelines, watching new developments of chain stores, businesses of various kinds, and city professionals and specialists of many kinds, without the ability to participate in them.
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE NEEDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
I – The Lack of Information About Rural Occupations: “Fact finding is needed now as never before about actual and possible rural occupations … basic to vocational counseling, vocational education and placement.”
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The concept of agriculture as 100% opportunity for rural youth out of date and needs revamping. The answer to this is “rural occupational research translated into actual balanced vocational guidance information.”
II – Vocational Counseling: Rural young people face the potential of deciding to move to the city or “the necessity for moving to other areas for any success in farming. … Most rural regions are in highly transitional stages at present because of road development, improving schools, rural electrification, problems concerned with agricultural opportunities, and so forth. Every rural boy and girl needs personal interpretation of these transitional changes.” Rural schools need not only occupational information but the help of trained counselors.
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“Some typical guidance problems of rural young people:
1. Change of residence …
2. The place of agriculture in the county outlook. Its’ place in his or her vocational future – there or elsewhere.
3. Chances in non-agricultural jobs and occupations needing local development.
4. Possibilities in kinds of agricultural occupations other than farming and the training needed for them.
5. Various other special vocational guidance needs” as mentioned earlier.
III – Vocational Education – Recommendations
Approved by the trustees of the National Vocational Guidance Association.
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“For Elementary Schools – Because grade schools are still terminal of education for from 70 to 95% of rural youth in especially under privileged areas, and their lack of training brings grave social consequences, it is recommended that basic instruction be made available in these schools: … in shop work … simplified home economics with home and school practice … agricultural projects … Purposes to be served by such instruction include home improvement, exploration of interests and abilities, development of some earning power as aid to further education, through assets for part-time employment, beginnings of training, etc.
Procedure suggested: (1) Experimentation and demonstration in a few groups of schools … (2) Provision of itinerant instructors to train teachers in small schools …”
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“For High Schools Are Needed: Constant provision for exploration and tryout. Broader realization of and approach to the underlying problems of vocational education in high school in such areas. …[M]ore emphasis upon basic skills for all. Avoidance of too early specialization, but opening up of a wider range of occupational vistas. Less emphasis upon vocational agriculture … [and] home economics. … At every point, closer correlation of any vocational education offerings with general guidance objectives and procedures in the concept of well-rounded development of the individual boy and girl. …”
“Regional Vocation Schools: … general approval was found of a plan for regional schools …”
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… This would necessitate Regional occupational research … counseling regarding occupations outside the area … placement and provisions, when desirable, for tryouts and apprenticeships … dormitories …bus transportation … in some cases, excellent mission school plants. …”
“Some Groups Who Might be Served by Regional Vocational Schools: … Those beyond the high school level … lower educational levels … high school graduates … miscellaneous types of students …”
Suggested Types of Training – … Fundamental shop work … auto-mechanics, electrification of various types … “
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“IV – Placement: There is a major need for rural junior placement bureaus grounded in guidance …” A list of conditions that occur when placement bureaus are missing.