Pine Mountain Settlement School
Series 09: BIOGRAPHY – Staff
CELIA CATHCART 1920 Road Correspondence II
Published 2022-01-07 hw/aae
CELIA CATHCART 1920 Road Correspondence II
(Set II: March 5 – November 30, 1920)
TAGS: Celia Cathcart, 1920 road correspondence II, Ethel de Long Zande, Laden Trail road, Pine Mountain Road Fund, Kentucky Department of Public Roads, Laden switch, convict labor, Louisville & Nashville Railroad, Kentucky Board of Control, road commissioners, road engineers, Wasioto Lumber Company, Kentucky Hardwoods, Katherine Pettit
Correspondents: CELIA CATHCART 1920 Road Correspondence II
Joe S. Boggs – Commissioner, Kentucky Department of Public Roads, Frankfort, Ky.
A. Headley Card Jr. and A. Headley Card, Sr. – Kentucky Hardwoods and Wasioto Lumber Company, Pineville, Ky.
L.R. Davis – Warden of the State Reformatory, Frankfort, Ky.
J.S. Forester – Attorney-at-Law, County Attorney, Harlan, Ky.
Scott Foster – In charge of the road work, Laden, Ky., hired by Joe Boggs.
Capt. Green(e) – Deputy Warden, State Reformatory, Frankfort, Ky.
Hon. Edward W. Hines – Chairman of the State Board of Charities and Corrections, Frankfort, Ky.
O.B. Hollingsworth – Superintendent, Louisville & Nashville Railroad, Cumberland Valley Division, United States Railroad Administration, Middlesborough, Ky.
Mrs. Celia Cathcart Holton – Former PMSS worker and representative of the School concerning Road construction.
J.R. Johnson – Division Engineer, Convict Labor Fund for Bell County, Kentucky Department of Public Roads, Pineville, Ky.; College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington.
Chad F. C. Lewis – Dillon General Store, Dillon, Ky.
F.G. Lewis – Harlan County Treasurer, Harlan, Ky.
Angela Melville – PMSS fundraiser 1916–1920.
W.E. Morrow – Secretary, Louisville Board of Trade, Louisville, Ky.
Katherine Pettit – PMSS Co-Founder and Co-Director, 1913-1930.
Mrs. Lafon Riker – Member of the Board of Control of the State of Kentucky, Harrodsburg. Also, President, Kentucky Federation of Women’s Club, Harrodsburg.
J.S. Watkins – J.R. Johnson’s successor as Division Engineer, Commonwealth of Kentucky, Frankfort.
Captain Theodore Williams – Superintendent in Charge, Kentucky Department of Public Roads, Dillon, Ky.
Captain F.H. Winfrey – In charge of convict labor, Columbia, Ky.
Ethel de Long Zande – PMSS Co-Founder and Co-Director, 1913-1928.
Contents: CELIA CATHCART 1920 Road Correspondence II
[Note: Letters from PMSS staff in the PMSS Collections are carbon copies, typewritten, unsigned, and meant for the Office files. The original signed copies were sent to the correspondents. The initials at the bottom left of most PMSS letters indicate the writer (along with initials of the secretary). For example, “EZ” are the initials for Ethel de Long Zande. Letters to PMSS staff are typewritten originals unless indicated otherwise. The following List of Contents is in chronological order and not necessarily in the order of the images numbers.]
March 5 – 31, 1920 (Continued)
60 March 5, 1920. To Zande from Boggs, reporting that he has ordered 75 convicts from the Board of Control.
61 March 5, 1920. To Hines from EZ (Zande), explains why she has been dissatisfied about the use of funds in building of the Pine Mountain Road. More money was spent than necessary because of the low number of convicts (17) and the lack of cooperation between the guards and the superintendent of construction work. Therefore, 75 to 100 convicts are needed this year. She has confidence in the State’s handling of road affairs and describes other sources of the difficulties they encountered last year. She reiterates the need for at least 75 convicts and a chief guard that will cooperate with the superintendent.
62 March 5, 1920. To Mrs. Lafon Riker, Member of the Kentucky Board of Control, Harrodsburg, from EZ (Zande), expressing distress over the rumor concerning PMSS’s dissatisfaction with misspent road funds by the Road Department. She feels there must be a larger working force and begin April 1 for the work to be efficient. She explains that “[b]y a special arrangement with the Road Commissioner, the State is paying for the road work and we reimburse the State to the extent of the amount of 35 or 40%.”
63 March 5, 1920. To Joe S. Boggs, Department of Public Roads, Frankfort, Ky., telling him of the rumor about PMSS’s dissatisfaction with misspent road funds by the Road Department and asking him to verify the road inspector’s salary to Hines. She is anxious to know what the School’s share will be and asks if PMSS will get 65% State aid.
64 March 8, 1920. To Zande from Boggs, stating that the accountant is still working on totaling the cost. He will send to Hines the salaries of the State road inspectors and has asked the Board of Control for 75 convicts. The State’s share of the cost of work on the road is “50/50.”
65 March 9, 1920. To Zande from Mrs. Riker, on letterhead for “President, Kentucky Federation of Women’s Club, Harrodsburg, Ky.,” who assured Zande that “[t]here has not been any disposition on the part of the board to feel that you are in any way unjustly criticising (sic) the work of the State last year.” She has learned that the School was granted 75 convicts, so no harm was done.
66 March 12, 1920. To W.E. Morrow, Secretary, Louisville Board of Trade, from EZ (Zande), who updates him on the road situation. She “will try to get a picture of the road…to send you for your ‘Trade Journal’” and hopes he will write an article about the road. “The Engineer who surveyed it says it is not only the most difficult piece of road construction in the State, but also that it would probably be the most beautiful in scenery.”
67 March 15, 1920. To Mrs. Riker from EZ (Zande), expressing appreciation for her note and is happy with the outcome. Zande apologizes for any misunderstanding.
68 March 16, 1920. To Zande from Boggs, who was advised by Hines that the Board of Control has allotted “40 convicts in Harlan County for this season.” When quarters are prepared for additional men, 35 more men will be released, totaling the 75 that Zande had requested.
69 March 18, 1920. To Boggs from EZ (Zande), with questions about what “we are expected to do at the Convict’s Camp” concerning bedding, start date, the survey, drainage, and who will oversee the work.
70 March 18, 1920. To Chad Lewis from EZ (Zande), asking for the number of “convicts the Camp will accommodate [at] this present moment.”
71 March 22, 1920. To Boggs from EZ (Zande), reporting that the Convict Camp will be fitted with bunks for 80 men.
72 March 22, 1920. To Watkins from EZ (Zande), who asks to meet with him to discuss the survey, drainage, and “general organization of the work.”
73 March 23, 1920. To Zande from Boggs, reporting “that the State Board of Charities and Corrections apportioned you the 75 convicts….” He has asked Watkins to hire a resident engineer to do the survey of the rest of the work. Also, he asks Watkins to employ a new more efficient superintendent on the drainage structures, suggesting she contact Watkins for more information.
74 March 26, 1920. To Zande from Boggs, who has written to L.R. Davis, Warden of the State Reformatory, to send 50 men now and asked the Board to apply for 35 additional men.
75-76 March 30, 1920. Two-page carbon copy of letter to Watkins from Hollingsworth,  stating that the sizes of the embankment and a driveway were larger than specified by L&N. He criticizes the charges for work and materials and asks that the School be refunded for the excess amounts.  “I cannot get the [L&N Railroad] Company to pay these bills unless the prices are made in line with my figures….”
77 March 31, 1920. To Zande from Hines, who is “referring your letter requesting the appointment of Henry Creech to Mr. L.R. Davis, the Warden of the Frankfort reformatory” since it is the prison wardens who appoint guards for the prisoners.
78-79 April 1, 1920. Clipping of two pages in the Board of Trade Journal.  “Board of Trade Business: Issued by Publicity Division Louisville Board of Trade to Aid Members…., Vol. II. Louisville, KY,” displaying a list of “Industrial Enterprises.”  Several short articles include one titled “Pine Mountain Road Work.”
80 April 9, 1920. To Watkins from EZ (Zande), expressing disappointment that he has not replied to any of her letters. She regrets “that the work did not begin April first as you expected it would.”
81 April 20, 1920. To Watkins from EZ (Zande), asking about the drainage work and the names of the superintendent, shovel man, powder man, and surveyor.
82 April 23, 1920. To Zande from Hines, who is forwarding her letter about convict workers to Joseph P. Byers, Commissioner of Public Institutions, “who will take the matter up with Warden Davis of the State Reformatory….”
83 April 24, 1920. To Zande from Watkins, answering her April 20 letter. He cannot give her the names of the workers yet and explains the reason; assures her he will send “a very competent Engineer.”
84 April 30, 1920. A statement to PMSS from A. Headley Card, Kentucky Hardwoods, for $63.00.
85 May 8, 1920. To Watkins from EZ (Zande), who plans to visit the camp at Laden every two weeks and hopes he will meet her there. She tells him that her confidence in him has been renewed.
86 May 19, 1920. To the Treasurer of Harlan County from (unsigned), PMSS, enclosing a check for $538.73, “funds collected and interest on same…for the Pine Mountain Road.”
87 May 20, 1920. To PMSS from A. Headley Card, stating that his invoice of November 12, 1919, covered 30 pieces of timber. “The Wasioto Lumber Co’s account has no bearing on this item, as they are separate organizations.”
88 May 20, 1920. To Card from (unsigned), PMSS, responding that PMSS had not purchased lumber at the time. “We therefore presume that it was for ties for the switch. … As it was agreed that the railroad should settle for these direct, you will have to refer this bill to them.”
108 May 28, 1920. To Boggs from EZ (Zande), reporting on her visit to the camp at Laden. She was told of difficulties to work on drainage because Mr. Watkins had been absent and asked Boggs confidentially to get Watkins to visit more often.
89 May 31, 1920. To Watkins from EZ (Zande), urging him to send Mr. Forester the information he needs at Laden and to meet with him at some time this week.
109 June 3, 1920. To Zande from Boggs, who has directed Mr. Watkins to hire a resident engineer “who can give Mr. Foster line grade at all times.”
90 June 10, 1920. To the Treasurer of Harlan County from (unsigned), PMSS. “We have been told that the County would prefer not to keep the Road Funds….” for PMSS and asks for verification from him. Encloses an itemized bill. for amounts paid by PMSS for road expenses.
91 June 10, 1920 (enclosure). An itemized bill for amounts paid by PMSS for road expenses on July 12, 1919 and March 6, 1920.
92 June 13, 1920. To PMSS from F.G. Lewis, Treasurer Harlan County, explaining that “the Fiscal Court made an order for the County Treasurer of Harlan County to turn over to the Commr. of Roads of the State of Kentucky, all the balance of the Road Fund….The order further state(s) that the County releases its part of the State Aid for that Road, allowing the State to build the same with Convict Labor.”
93 June 18, 1920. To F.G. Lewis, Treasurer, from EZ (Zande). She does not “see how the fiscal court could act with authority… without consulting the school.” She asks Lewis to hold the funds until she receives an explanation from the road commissioner.
94-95 June 22, 1920. Two-page letter to Boggs from EZ (Zande), asking his opinion of Watkin’s infrequent visits to the road site which has hampered the progress of the road project. She also tells him that the Treasurer has been authorized to no longer hold PMSS road funds ($40k to 50k) and asks for an explanation. She feels that PMSS’s own treasurer, C.N. Manning of the Security Trust in Lexington, should have custody instead of the road commissioner (Boggs). If Boggs will take over “the whole matter of the road construction, its completion and surfacing,” Zande will agree to turning over the money to him.
96 June 28, 1920. To Zande from F.G. Lewis. A handwritten list showing “the amount that I paid on P. Mt. Road” from June 1918 through June 1920.
97 June 28, 1920. To F.G. Lewis from EZ (Zande), June 28. 1920. A handwritten note from F.G. Lewis, stating how money was invested (at 4 1/2% interest) and verifying that it was ready to be transferred to the State. He has vouchers signed by the Road Engineer, County Judge, and County Attorney for the payments.
98 June 29, 1920. To Lewis from EZ (Zande), expressing surprise “that payments have been made on the road fund without any O.K. from the school….” She asks to see the vouchers; who is W.W. Barton who received several payments; about a payment to the prison camp guards; and the amount of accumulated interest on the fund.
99-100 June 29, 1920. Two-page letter to Zande from J.S. Forester, Harlan County Attorney, responding to her letter to Lewis about the status of the PMSS road fund. He describes the history of the transactions including turning over the funds to the Fiscal Court; applying for convict labor, State Aid, investments, and expenses paid from the fund. “The School, therefore, has nothing further to do with the expenditure of the fund as this fund is now all subject to the orders of the State Authorities.” He mentions that $5,000 will be placed with the fund as soon as the certain bonds are sold.
101 July 2, 1920. To Forester from (unsigned, apparently Zande), who appreciated his letter and was sorry that a part of the funds “could not be invested at 4 1/2%….” She asks who W.W. Barton and why PMSS had to pay for the guards. She asks him to understand her need to know the details of road affairs “both for my own sake and because of the people who gave us money for them.”
110 July 6, 1920. Handwritten letter to Zande from Lewis, responding to her letter to Forester and explaining that the $35.50 charge in question was for “cots for guards at Dillon Camp.”
107 July 9, 1920. To Zande from Boggs, reporting that he asked Watkins to visit her soon; is securing a resident engineer; has sent her an itemized statement showing costs of last season’s work.
111 July 12, 1920. To Mr. Scott Foster, Laden, Kentucky, from EZ (Zande) asking him to come on Saturday to instruct Miss (Katherine) Pettit on “the best way to make a dirt road using a drag to make the crown” since she is planning to “put in a little road.”
113 July 16, 1920. To Lewis from EZ (Zande), who verified the vouchers totaling $15,701.96 spent on the Pine Mountain Road from June 23, 1919, to May 25, 1920. Consequently, she gives her okay on PMSS’s share and sent $7,850.98 to the State. She asks again about checks paid to W.W. Barton. She also encloses a check for $372.50 to add to the road fund, which was a payment by L&N Railroad for the switch.
102 July 19, 1920. Handwritten letter to Zande from Lewis, explaining payments to W.W. Barton, “who made the vouchers & signed them as Road Engineer.” Mentions the “Snake Story” and that Dr. Howard (sheriff) is considered the “champion.”
103 July 19, 1920. To Boggs from EZ (Zande), thanking him for the statement. Mentions his “different title”; Mr. Foster’s good work on the road; and cooperation of Captain Greene of the reformatory staff.
104 July 21, 1920. To Johnson from EZ (Zande), asking why PMSS is billed for the activities of a Harlan County engineer. Mentions that “Mr. Boggs is a good backer for that road and has put a fine man in charge, Mr. Foster.”
105 July 22, 1920. To Zande from Boggs, reporting receipt of her check for PMSS’s part of the cost of convict labor last season. He is glad she is pleased with Mr. Foster’s work and has sent a resident engineer and assistant superintendent to help out.
106 See August 19, 1920.
107 See July 9, 1920.
108 See May 28, 1920.
109 See June 3, 1920.
110 See July 6, 1920.
111 See July 12, 1920.
112 See August 12, 1920.
113 See July 16, 1920.
112 August 12, 1920. To Mr. Greene from EZ (Zande), asking him to keep the number of convicts to 75, as several have been discharged and others will be soon.
106 August 19, 1920. To Watkins from EZ (Zande), presenting a list of payments made to W.W. Barton (former County Engineer for Harlan County) and asking for reimbursements.
114 August 19, 1920. To Boggs from EZ (Zande), asking Boggs to call Mr. Davis to increase the number of convicts at Laden Camp from 57 to 75, which Mr. Greene had promised.
115 August 21, 1920. To EZ (Zande) from Boggs, who has already requisitioned the State Board of Charities and Corrections for enough convicts to keep the quota up to 75 as stipulated in his original requisition of last winter.
116 August 25, 1920. To Boggs from EZ (Zande), thanking him for his response. “May you live long in the land! Every time I hear from you I feel sure that our road will eventually get across Pine Mountain.”
September 1920 – NO IMAGES
October 1920 – NO IMAGES
117 November 3, 1920. To Zande from Boggs, who, after consulting with the Deputy Warden, has decided to maintain the camp at PMSS this winter, with approximately 75 convicts.
118 November 22, 1920. To Mr. Lechty from EZ (Zande), asking him to donate “a carload of coal to use for firing the steam shovel….We have just finished the last carload of coal given us by the Wisconsin steel people early in the summer…You know we are not building this road just for ourselves, but to open up this whole section of country.”
119 November 24, 1920. To Mr. Boggs from EZ (Zande), explaining her delay in responding to his November 3 letter: “I have been in the county seat during the examining trial of various people who were possibly implicated in the murder of our teacher, Miss Parsons.” She asks if “the prison authorities will be willing to bear part of the expense” of the maintenance of the convicts during bad winter weather when they cannot work.
120 November 30, 1920. To Zande from Boggs, explaining why the Board would not agree to paying convicts “for only the time that they are actually engaged in work this winter.” If a spell of bad weather is prolonged, he suggest abandoning the camp until spring.
CELIA CATHCART Staff – Biography
CELIA CATHCART 1916 Road Correspondence
CELIA CATHCART 1917 Road Correspondence
CELIA CATHCART 1918 Road Correspondence
CELIA CATHCART 1919 Road Correspondence I
CELIA CATHCART 1919 Road Correspondence II
LADEN TRAIL or THE ROAD – Prospectus and history.
LADEN TRAIL or THE ROAD CORRESPONDENCE Part I – 1916–1919
LADEN TRAIL or THE ROAD CORRESPONDENCE Part II – 1920-1921
LADEN TRAIL or THE ROAD Photo Gallery
Gallery: CELIA CATHCART 1920 Road Correspondence II
(Images 60 – 120)