LADEN TRAIL or THE ROAD CORRESPONDENCE Part II

Pine Mountain Settlement School
Series 12: Land Use – Laden Trail or The Road

LADEN TRAIL or THE ROAD CORRESPONDENCE Part II
1920 – 1921


TAGS: Laden Trail or The Road Correspondence Part II ; letters ; Katherine Pettit ; Ethel de Long Zande ; Angela Melville ; Celia Cathcart Holton ; county judges ; county treasurers ; attorneys ; railroad superintendents ; county road commissioners ; civil engineers ; prison camp supervisors ; reformatory wardens ; road inspectors ; State Board of Control ; surveyors ; accountants ; convict labor ; convict camps ; L. and N. Railroad ; grading ; ditches ; surveys ; drainage ; railroad ties ; sidings ; switches ; Wasiota Lumber Company ; Road Funds ; dynamite ; steam shovels ; pledges ; donations ;


Part II of the LADEN TRAIL OR THE ROAD CORRESPONDENCE lists the contents of approximately 200 of over 400 letters to and from Katherine Pettit and Ethel de Long Zande, the co-founders of Pine Mountain Settlement School, and Angela Melville and Celia Cathcart Holton, both of whom effectively assisted in fundraising for the Road project. Their correspondents were a wide range of players — the county judge, the county treasurer, an attorney, a railroad superintendent, county road commissioners, civil engineers, prison camp supervisors, the State Board of Control, surveyors, and others — who were involved in the construction of the Road over the north side of Pine Mountain, connecting with the railroad in Dillon, Kentucky. Parts I and II cover the years just before and after the establishment of the School, 1916-1921. This page, part II, lists the contents of letters dated 1920-1921.

Parts I and II cover the years just before and after the establishment of the School, 1916-1921. This page, part II, lists the contents of letters dated 1920-1921.

NOTE: Letters from Pine Mountain Settlement School staff are carbon copies of typewritten documents. (The carbon copies, unsigned, were kept in the PMSS Office files and the original signed copies were sent to the correspondents.) All other letters are also typewritten unless otherwise indicated. The letters are in chronological order and therefore not necessarily in order of the image titles (e.g. “cath.001.jpg”).


Laden Trail or The Road Correspondence Part II: 1920

Laden Trail road, car and forested hillside. [nace_II_album_086.jpg]

[cath.125.jpg] Handwritten note. January 2, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande from F. G. Lewis, Treasurer, Harlan, Ky. Received check and placed it in the Road Fund. Handwritten note. January 2, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande from F. G. Lewis, Treasurer.

[cath.126.jpg] January 5, 1920. Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from J. S. Watkins, Division Engineer, London, Ky. Has discussed the switch matter with Mr. Williams and is ready to discuss it with Zande in person.

[cath.127.jpg] January 10, 1920Handwritten letter, page 1 of 4. To Mrs. Zande from J. R. Johnson on letterhead for University of Kentucky, College of Engineering, Lexington, Ky. Gives his opinion concerning Mr. Williams as an honorable and honest man and Capt. Winfrey as otherwise; disappointed at Road progress; advises that Zande urge the State Department to change superintendents.
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[cath_297.jpg] January 10, 1920. To Mrs. Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Ky., from A. Headley Card, Kentucky Hardwoods., Pineville, Ky. Agrees with Mr. Williams that our prices for matched switch ties are $40 per M. loaded on cars, but invoiced these to the Railroad at $35 on our yard; see Card about the free lumber.

[cath.131.jpg] January 13, 1920. Page 1 of 2. To J.R. Johnson, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks his opinion of Mr. Watkins; provides Johnson with details of Watkins’ opinions of the Road situation, including convicts, schedule, Mr. Williams, construction costs & federal or state aid, getting estimates. Asks Johnson for his thoughts on these issues.
[cath.132.jpg] Page 2 of 2.

[cath_298.jpg] January 20, 1920. to Mr. A. Headley Card, Sr., Nolansburg, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Appreciates Card’s contribution to rebuilding the prison camp; will send check later, as the School is currently “impoverished.”

[cath_299.jpg] January 23, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc., Pine Mountain, Ky., from O. B. Hollingsworth, Supt., L. and N. Railroad, Middlesborough, Ky. Asks for corrected statement of amount due to the School.

[cath_300.jpg] January 24, 1920. Page 1 of 2. Handwritten letter to Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from C. F. C. Lewis, “That Good General Store,” Dillon, Ky. Reports that rain is cutting up the road, creating a need for ditches.
[cath_301.jpg] Page 2 of 2. Lewis questions William’s payments of 70 cents apiece for the ties.

[cath_302.jpg] January 27, 1920. To Mr. H. C. Card, Nolansburg, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). According to Marguerite Butler‘s meeting with Card, he agreed to give a check for the value of the ties which he received from the Railroad; asks for the check so that the School can pay for the flooring.

[cath_303.jpg] January 27, 1920. To Mr. C. F. C. Lewis, from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Zande reassures that Williams’ has paid the correct amount, 106 ties at $1.00 each; asks that ditches are dug on the road.

[cath_304.jpg] January 27, 1920. To Mr. O. B. Hollingsworth, L. and N. Railroad, Middlesboro, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks Hollingsworth what he paid Card for the ties, fearing that Card was overpaid; asks that he pay Lewis for 106 ties at $1.10 each.

[cath.133.jpg] January 27, 1920. To J. S. Watkins, Division Engineer, London, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks for material needed by L. and N. Railroad; asked how many convicts to apply for; upset concerning lack of proper drainage for the Road.

[cath.134.jpg] January 30, 1920. Handwritten letter, page 1 of 5. To Mrs. Zande from J. R. Johnson on letterhead for University of Kentucky, College of Engineering, Lexington, Ky. Replies to each of Zande’s issues, including cost of using convicts provided by the government versus using contracted work; working both ends of the Road at once; current money not covering a hard surfacing of the Road; chances of getting Federal aid; lack of county cooperation; encourages Zande to use friends with political influence.
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[cath_305.jpg] January 31, 1920. Handwritten letter to Mrs. Zande, Pine Mt., Ky., from C. F. C. Lewis. Needs someone to help work on the Road at $3.50 per day.

[cath_306.jpg] January 31, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc., Pine Mountain, Ky., from O. B. Hollingsworth, Supt., L. and N. Railroad, Middlesborough (sic), Ky. Agrees that Card’s bill for $62 for 30 ties was an improper charge; provides his engineer’s estimate for grading which is less than Zande’s engineer’s estimate.

[cath_308.jpg] February 2, 1920. Handwritten bill for “Mdse” to Pine Mountain Settlement School from Wasioto Lumber Company, Inc., Pineville, Ky. Bill for “Mdse” at $157.19 with an urgent request to pay.

[cath_307.jpg] February 4, 1920. To Mr. C. F. C. Lewis, Dillon, Ky., from (unsigned), Secretary. Zande is away from the School for about 2 weeks; Zande advises to go ahead and engage men at $3.50 per day to dig the ditches; better to wait until Zandes’ return

[cath_309.jpg] February 4, 1920. To Mr. J. S. Watkins, London, Ky., from (unsigned), Secretary to Mrs. Zande. Asks Watkins the cost of grading for the Laden switch and amount of dirt removed to install switch, so that the Railroad pay the bill.

[cath_310.jpg] February 4, 1920. To Mr. O. B. Hollingsworth, Louisville and Nashville Railroad, Middlesboro, Ky., from (unsigned) Secretary to Mrs. Zande. Zande would like to know why the Railroad paid Card a higher price for the ties than Lewis; trying to settle matters about grading.

[cath_311.jpg] February 8, 1920. To Mr. H. C. Card, Nolansburg, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks Card for his contribution so that the School can pay the $157.19 lumber bill.

[cath_312.jpg] February 9, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from J. S. Watkins, Division Engr., Department of Public Roads, London, Ky. Plans to go over the costs with Hollingsworth in person.

[cath_143.jpg] March 1, 1920. To Mr. Joe S. Boggs, Commissioner, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Needs the Pine Mt. Road survey and drainage specifications for the north side of the mountain before next month when work begins.

[cath_144.jpg] March 1, 1920. To Mr. J. S. Watkins, Div. Engineer, Dept of Public Roads, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asked what arrangements has Watkins made for completing survey and drainage plans.

[cath_357.jpg] March 1, 1920. Page 1 of 2. To Miss Katherine Pettit, Head Resident, Pine Mountain Settlement, Pine Mountain, Ky., from William E. Morrow, Secretary, Louisville Board of Trade, Louisville, Ky. Requested updates & photos of Road to publish in Journal. Handwritten note, dated March 8 [no year], suggesting that Miss Celia write and distribute a Road article.[cath_358.jpg] Page 2 of 2.

[cath_359.jpg] March 12, 1920. To Mr. W. E. Morrow, Secretary, Louisville Board of Trade, Louisville, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Provides progress report on Road construction; suggests an article about “the general situation of the road.”

[cath_145.jpg] March 22, 1920. To J. S. Watkins, Div. Engineer, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). We have been granted 75 convicts by the State; requests a meeting with Watkins about survey and drainage specs.

[cath_313.jpg] March 20, 1920. Page 1 of 2. To J. S. Watkins, Division Engr., Department of Public Roads, London, Ky., from O. B. Hollingsworth, Supt.. L. and N. Railroad, Middlesborough, Ky. Copy to Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Ky. Demands a $248.50 refund to the School for overcharging for grade work; the Railroad will not pay for the ties until Watkins’ prices are in line with Hollingsworth’s figures.
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[cath_244.jpg] March 22, 1920. To Mr. Joe S. Boggs, Commissioner, Commonwealth of Kentucky, Frankfort, from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Preparing the Convict Camp for 75 convicts.

[cath_146.jpg] March 23, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from Joe S. Boggs, Commissioner. Informs Zande that State Board of Charities and Corrections granted her 75 convicts; asked Watkins to employ a resident engineer to finish survey and drainage specs and to hire a new bridge engineer.

[cath_355.jpg] April 1, 1920. Page 1 of 2. Clipping from Board of Trade Business Journal, Louisville, Ky., with headline “Pine Mountain Road Work.” “The Pine Mountain Road, toward which the Louisville Board of Trade contributed about $6,000 two years ago, will, when completed, probably be the most beautiful in scenery in the State of Kentucky. It will also be one of the most difficult bits of road construction from the engineering standpoint….”
[cath_356.jpg] April 1, 1920. First page of Board of Trade Business Journal, Louisville, Ky., showing Journal’s logo and list of “Industrial Enterprises.”

[cath_147.jpg] April 9, 1920. To Mr. Watkins, Road Div. Superintendent, London, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Expresses disappointment that Watkins is not answering her letters and Road work hasn’t begun on April first as expected.

[cath_148.jpg] April 20, 1920. To J. S. Watkins, Div. Engineer, London, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks Watkins about the switch, convicts, drainage details, new superintendent and other staff; hopes to meet him on site.

[cath_149.jpg] April 24, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from J.S. Watkins, Division Engineer, London, Ky. Has no answers yet to her staffing questions.

[cath_315.jpg] April 30, 1920. Handwritten bill to Pine Mtn. Settlement School, Dillon (sic), Ky. from A. Headley Card, Kentucky Hardwoods, Pineville, Ky. Bill for $63.00, urging prompt settlement of the account.

[cath_150.jpg] May 8, 1920. To J. S. Watkins, Road Division Engineer, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks Watkins to meet her at the Laden camp during one of her regular 2-week visit; pleased with this year’s working unit.

[cath_151.jpg] May 19, 1920. To Treasurer of Harlan Co., Harlan, Ky., from The Pine Mountain Settlement School, by (unsigned). Encloses $538.73 check for Pine Mt. Road.

[cath_316.jpg] May 20, 1920. To Gentlemen (sic), Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Ky., from A. Headley Card, Kentucky Hardwoods, Pineville, Ky. Responding to PMSS letter questioning an invoice for 30 pcs. timber, Card explains that Wasiota Lumber Company is a separate organization from his company; again asks for prompt payment.

[cath_317.jpg] May 24, 1920. To Mr. A. Headley Card, Pineville, Ky., from The Pine Mountain Settlement School By (unsigned). PMSS did not purchase such lumber, so the bill must be for ties for the switch, for which the Railroad should be charged.

[cath_152.jpg] May 31, 1920. To Mr. J.S. Watkins, Road Division Engineer, London, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). When are you sending the engineer that Mr. Forester needs?; he also needs to meet with you.

[cath_153.jpg] June 10, 1920. Page 1 of 2. Treasurer of Harlan Co., Harlan, Ky., from The Pine Mountain Settlement School, by (unsigned). Asks for confirmation that the County would prefer not to keep the Road Funds; encloses itemized bill of Road expenses.
[cath_154.jpg] Page 2 of 2. Itemized bill.

[cath_155.jpg] June 13, 1920. To Pine Mountain School, Pine Mountain, Ky., from F. G. Lewis, County Treasurer, Harlan County. Explains that the Fiscal Court ordered that Harlan County Treasurer turn over to the State Commissioner of Roads the balance of the Road Fund; also that the County releases its part of the State Aid for the Road; returning Zande’s claim of $235.54 for signature and return for payment.

[cath_156.jpg] June 18, 1920. To Mr. F. G. Lewis, Treasurer, Harlan County, Harlan, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks Lewis not to turn over the money to the Road Commissioner until Zande gets an explanation from the Commissioner how the money is to be used.

[cath_157.jpg] June 22, 1920. Page 1 of 2. To Mr. Joe Boggs, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Complains to Boggs that Watkins’ visits to the Road at Laden are too infrequent and hampers Mr. Foster’s progress; asks for clarification on the School’s part in paying for the Road. Before the fund ($40,000 to $50,000) is turned over to Watkins, Zande asks for a complete understanding; suggests that C.N. Manning, the School’s treasurer, should have custody of the money.
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[cath_159.jpg] June 28, 1920. Page 1 of 2. Handwritten itemized bill for amounts paid on Pine Mt. Road from F. G. Lewis, Treasurer, Harlan County.
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[cath_161.jpg] June 29, 1920. To Mr. F.G. Lewis, Harlan, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Expresses surprise that payments were made on the Road Fund without okay from the School as agreed upon; asks questions about several payments; asks for accumulated amount of interest received while the money was invested in 4 1/2% certificates.

[cath_162.jpg] June 29, 1920. Page 1 of 2. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from J. S. Forester, Attorney-at-Law, County Attorney, Harlan, Ky. Explains status of Road Fund.[cath_163.jpg] Page 2 of 2.

[cath_165.jpg] July 6, 1920. Handwritten note to Miss Ethel de Long Zande from F. G. Lewis, Treasurer, Harlan County. Explains that the $35.50 payment was for “cots for guards.”

[cath_166.jpg] July 9, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., Joe S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer, Department of Public Roads, Frankfort, Ky. Provided updates on Foster, Watkins, a resident engineer; will send a statement of last season’s costs.

[cath_167.jpg] July 16, 1920. To Mr. F. G. Lewis, Harlan, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Verifies the vouchers totalling $15,701.96 spent on the Pine Mt. Road from June 23, 1919 to May 24, 1920; asks Lewis to send $7,850.98 to the State Road department as the School’s payment; asks him to look into checks paid to W.W. Barton.

[cath_168.jpg] July 19, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande from F. G. Lewis, Treasurer, Harlan County, Harlan, Ky. Provides the names of those who okayed the checks, which are available for Zande’s inspection.

[cath_169.jpg] July 19, 1920. To Mr. Boggs from (unsigned). Thanks Boggs for the statement and invites him to visit the Road; pleased with Mr. Foster’s work and cooperation by Capt. Greene of the reformatory staff.

[cath_170.jpg] July 21, 1920. To Professor Johnson, Department of Mathematics, State University, Lexington, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asked for explanation of payments to W.W. Barton, Harlan County Engineer.

[cath_171.jpg] July 22, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from Joe S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer, Frankfort, KY. Received School’s check for its part of convict labor cost for last season; has sent a resident engineer and asst. superintendent to Mr. Foster.

[cath_172.jpg] August 19, 1920. To Mr. J. S. Watkins, Division Engineer, Department of Public Roads, London, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Sent list of payments to Barton, which Watkins will reimburse.

[cath_173.jpg] November 3, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from J. S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer, Frankfort, Ky. The Deputy Warden has agreed to keep 75 convicts at the camp for the winter.

[cath_175.jpg] November 22, 1920. To Mr. Lechty from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks for a contribution of a carload of coal for the steam shovel; explains the Road situation.

[cath_174.jpg] November 24, 1920. To Mr. J. S. Boggs, Dept. State Roads & Highways, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks if prison authorities would pay part of the expense of convicts’ maintenance during down periods in the winter.

[cath_179.jpg] ) Handwritten notation: “Early Dec.” [no year]. Handwritten letter to Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mt., Ky., from C.F.C. Lewis, “That Good General Store,” Dillon, Ky. Lewis has sold the load of coal and explains the cost of freight; camp supplies are inside but gasoline is leaking.

[cath_180.jpg] January 19, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel Zande, Pine Mountain School from F. H. Winfrey, Columbia, Ky. Asks for update on Road construction during winter and plans for spring; will return as superintendent if using convicts again; would like to meet with Zande.

[cath_182.jpg] January 19, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mt., Ky., from J. S. Watkins, Division Engineer, Department of Public Roads. Met with Boggs, who is hopeful about getting convict labor for the coming season; will send copies of cost statements.

[cath_183.jpg] January 20, 1920. Mr. J. S. Watkins, Division Engineer, London, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks for updates on the Pine Mt. Road, including need for convict labor this summer, amount spent so far, drainage plans; asks him to send material on the L. and N. Railroad affair.

[cath_181.jpg] January 30 (20?), 1920. To F. H. Winfrey, Columbia, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Refers Winfrey’s questions to Watkins, Division Engineer.

[cath_184.jpg] February 3, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from J. S. Watkins, Division Engineer, Department of Public Roads, London, Ky. Refers Zande to Road Commissioner for convict labor; will send cost data.

[cath_333.jpg] February 3, 1920. To Celia (Holton), London, Ohio, from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Subject: Asked about “that ton of dynamite.” Asks for updates on the dynamite contribution; provides updates on the Road (mentioning Mr. Watkins) and the School (mentioning Miss Wright, Miss Barber, Alice Butler, Miss Brewster, Miss Gaines).

[cath_185.jpg] February 5, 1920. To Joe S. Boggs, Commissioner of Public Roads, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Applies for 40 convicts.

[cath_186.jpg] February 9, 1920. To Joe S. Boggs, Commissioner of Public Roads, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Changes her request to 75 convicts, since the camp at Laden can accommodate that number.

[cath_188.jpg] February 9 (2?), 1920. To Mrs. Lafon Riker, Board of Control of the State of Kentucky, Harrodsburg, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Applies for 75 convicts to work on the Pine Mt. Road. Explains loss of money last year due to small number of convicts, “since overhead charges are so heavy.”

[cath_187.jpg] February 17, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc., Pine Mountain, Ky., from Joe S. Boggs, Commissioner, Department of Public Roads, Frankfort, Ky. Receipt of Zande’s application for convicts, but not sure the State Board of Control will allot 75 convicts to any one camp.

[cath_189.jpg] February 21, 1920. To Mr. Hines from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks Hines to discuss need for convicts with Johnson, the School’s former engineer, and Angela Melville, public representative of the School.

[cath_190.jpg] February 21, 1920. To Mrs. Lafon Riker, Harrodsburg, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Informs Riker of her request to Hines to meet with Johnson and Melville.

[cath_191.jpg] February 24, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Harlan County, Ky., from Edward W. Hines, Chairman, The State Board of Control, Frankfort, Ky. The Board of Control meant to invite Zande to discuss convict labor, not to “solicit a conference.”

[cath_192.jpg] February 25, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Harlan County, Ky., from Edward W. Hines, Chairman, The State Board of Control, Frankfort, Ky. In response to Zande’s 2/21/1920 letter, Hines advises that Johnson and Melville should meet with the Dept. of Public Roads, rather than the Board of Control; explains his 2/24 letter as his misunderstanding the subject of the proposed meeting.

[cath_193.jpg] March 1, 1920. To Mr. Edward W. Hines, Chairman, The State Board of Control, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Apologizes for causing a misunderstanding; mentions economic waste in having the convicts; feels that keepers must cooperate with the superintendent.

[cath_194.jpg] March 2, [no year]. Page 1 of 6. Handwritten letter To Mrs. Zande from Angela [Melville], YWCA Home, Lexington, Ky. Melville updates Zande about her meetings in Frankfort with Mrs. Riker and the Board of Control about the Road. The Board told her that it “had not the power to appropriate the number of convicts – this matter being in the hands of Mr. Boggs, the Road Commissioner.” However, they would be interested in the School’s complaint about handling of the State funds, which Melville then discussed with Riker. Cathcart visited with Boggs, who said the Board did have power to veto or approve number of convicts sent, a statement Cathcart then relayed back to Riker. Suggests that Zande meet with the Board to clear up the complaint issue.
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[cath_200.jpg] March 5, 1920. To Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc., Pine Mountain, Ky., from Joe S. Boggs, Commissioner, Department of Public Roads, Frankfort, Ky. Informs Zande that he will apply to the Board of Control for 75 convicts.

[cath_201.jpg] March 5, 1920. To Mr. Edward W. Hines, State Board of Control, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Explains her complaint about use of Road funds; too few convicts meant costly overhead; feels need for 75-100 convicts this year; has confidence in State’s administration of road affairs, and explain causes of last year’s problems; will ask Mr. Boggs about the rumor of $300 a month salary for the inspector; urges that chief guard of convicts is instructed to cooperate with the superintendent.

[cath_202.jpg] March 5, 1920. To Mrs. Lafon Riker, Harrodsburg, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Zande denies rumors about her dissatisfaction with spending of Road funds and the salary for a road inspector; explains problem of too few convicts; Informs Riker that “the State is paying for the Road work and we reimburse the State at 35 or 40 percent.”

[cath_203.jpg] March 5, 1920. To Mr. Joe S. Boggs, Department of Public Roads, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Describes the rumors about Road fund spending; asks him about paying a road inspector; asks what the School’s share of last year’s expenses will be.

[cath_204.jpg] March 8, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from Joe S. Boggs, Commissioner, Department of Public Roads, Frankfort, Ky. Total costs are not yet determined by the accountant; will advise Hines, chairman of the Board of Control, the salaries for State road inspector; will ask Board for 75 convicts; the State’s share of the cost of convict labor is 50/50.

[cath_205.jpg] March 9, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande from Mrs. Lafon Riker, (on letterhead for President, Kentucky Federation of Women’s Clubs), Lexington, Ky. The Board does not feel that Zande was unjustly criticizing the State’s work; apologizes if she misinformed anyone; Zande’s request for convicts was granted; was told the road supervisor’s salary was $200.

[cath_206.jpg] March 15, 1920. To Mrs. Lafon Riker, Harrodsburg, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Zande feels reassured; appreciates receiving the convicts as requested.

[cath_207.jpg] March 16, 1920. Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from Joe S. Boggs, Commissioner, Department of Public Roads, Frankfort, Ky. Reports that 75 convicts will be allotted and trusts that their quarters will be ready.

[cath_208.jpg] March 18, 1920. To Mr. Jos. S. Boggs, Commissioner, Commonwealth of Kentucky, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks what the School is expected to do at the convicts’ camp; asks questions about schedule, draining specs, superintendent.

[cath_209.jpg] March 18, 1920. To Mr. Chad. Lewis, Dillon, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks for number of convicts the camp can accommodate now.

[cath_210.jpg] March 31, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Harlan County, Kentucky, from Edward W. Hines, Chairman, Board of Charities and Correction (on letterhead for State Board of Control, Frankfort, Ky.) Refers Zande’s letter requesting appointment of Henry Creech as convict guard to Warden Davis of the Frankfort reformatory.

[cath_211.jpg] March 26, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from Joe S. Boggs, Commissioner, Department of Public Roads, Frankfort, Ky. As the quarters are ready, Boggs asked Warden Davis to send convicts.

[cath_212.jpg] April 23, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc., Pine Mountain, Harlan County, Ky., from Edward W. Hines, Chairman, State Board of Control, Frankfort, Ky. Referring Zande’s request for convicts to Joseph P. Byers, Commissioner of Public Institutions, who will ask Warden Davis.

[cath_391.jpg] Handwritten list titled “Vouchers for May 1920.” Shows columns for voucher numbers, company or individuals’ names, jobs/services, dollar amounts. On letterhead stationery for “Commonwealth of Kentucky, Department of Public Roads, Dillon, Harlan County, Ky.”

[cath_213.jpg] May 28, 1920. To Mr. Joe Boggs, Road Commissioner, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Zande wrote that Forester needs to see Watkins more often in order to proceed; asks Boggs to see Watkins about this but keep her complaint confidential.

[cath_214.jpg] June 3, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel De Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from Joe S. Boggs, Commissioner, Department of Public Roads, Frankfort, Ky. Will send a resident engineer in Mr. Watkin’s place.

cath_392.jpg] Handwritten list titled “Vouchers June 1920.” SEE [cath_391.jpg] for further description.

[cath_387.jpg] July 9, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from Joe S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer. Responds to her request for a list of claims paid by State for road construction; explains distribution of copies; requests payment of $7,850.98 as 1/2 of the cost of last year’s work.

[cath_215.jpg] July 12, 1920. To Mr. Scott Foster, Laden, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). To Captain Greene, State Reformatory, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks Foster to provide instructions to Miss Pettit who “wants to brush up on the best way to make a dirt road….”

[cath_393.jpg] Handwritten list titled “Vouchers for July 1920. Pine Mt. Settlement Road.” SEE [cath_391.jpg] for further description.

[cath_216.jpg] August 12, 1920. Asks Greene to keep the number of convicts to the original number of 75.

[cath_217.jpg] August 19, 1920. To Mr. Joe S. Boggs, State Road Engineer, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Asks Boggs to call Warden Davis to send more convicts to keep the number to 75.

[cath_218.jpg] August 21, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel De Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from Joe S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer, Department of Public Roads and Highways, Frankfort, Ky. Assures Zande that he has requisitioned the State Board of Charities and Corrections for the quota of 75 convicts.

[cath_219.jpg] August 25, 1920. To Mr. Joe S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer, Commonwealth of Kentucky, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Thanks him for his requisition for additional convicts.

[cath_394.jpg] Typewritten list titled “Vouchers August 1920, Pine Mountain Settlement Road #48E-1, Harlan County, Kentucky.” SEE [cath_391.jpg] for further description.

[cath_395.jpg] Handwritten list titled “Pine Mountain Settlement Road No. 48 E-1. Vouchers for September 1920.” Signed by D. L. Lyons, Clerk, Dept. of State Road Highways, Dillon, Ky. SEE [cath_391.jpg] for further description.

[cath_396.jpg] Handwritten list titled “Vouchers for October 1920.” Signed D. L. Lyons, Clk. SEE [cath_391.jpg] for further description.

[cath_220.jpg] November 30, 1920. To Mrs. Ethel De Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from Joe S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer, Department of Public Roads and Highways, Frankfort, Ky. Explains why the State Board would not agree to an arrangement to pay convicts for only the time they actually worked.

[cath_397.jpg] Handwritten list titled “Vouchers for November 1920.” Signed by D. L. Lyons, Clerk, Dillon, Ky. SEE [cath_391.jpg] for further description.

[cath_398.jpg] ] Handwritten list titled “Pine Mountain Settlement Road – Vouchers for Month of Dec 1920.” SEE [cath_391.jpg] for further description.

Laden Trail or The Road Correspondence: 1921

[cath_221.jpg] January 23, 1921. Page 1 of 2. To Mr. Joe S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer, Department of Public Highways, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Describes friction among Mr. Caldwell, shovel man, Mr. Foster, superintendent, and Mr. Watkins, division engineer; problems with Pat O’Neill and Mr. Bailey. Asks Boggs to meet with Foster and to remove Watkins from supervisory position.
[cath_222.jpg] Page 2 of 2.

[cath_224.jpg] January 25, 1921. To Mrs. Ethel De Long Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Ky., from Joe S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer, Department of Public Roads and Highways, Frankfort, Ky. Has received criticism of the camp; asks Zande for a report on the convicts and guards.

[cath_223.jpg] January 26, 1921. To Mrs. Ethel De Long Zande, Pine Mountain, Ky., from Joe S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer, Department of Public Roads and Highways, Frankfort, Ky. Will have the matter investigated before taking action; may be best to transfer Foster.

[cath_225.jpg] January 30, 1921. Page 1 of 2. To Mr. Joe S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Provides positive reports on each of the construction workers and the prisoners and guards; feels the criticism is the result of the Parsons’ case and “personal jealousies.” Pleased that Boggs will investigate the friction between Watkins and Foster; expresses support for Foster.
[cath_226.jpg] Page 2 of 2.

[cath_407.jpg] February 1, 1921(?). Handwritten report titled “January Vouchers,” showing list of voucher numbers, companies or individuals, and service/job.

[cath_227.jpg] February 5, 1921. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc., Pine Mountain, Harlan County, Ky., from W. H. Moyer, Superintendent, Kentucky State Reformatory, Frankfort, Ky. Informs Zande that 30 eligible convicts will be selected, the quota for the Road work.

[cath_228.jpg] February 5, 1921. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, President, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Ky., from J. S. Watkins, Division Engineer, London, Ky. (on letterhead for Department of Public Roads and Highways, Frankfort, Ky.) Requests a meeting with Zande at the Road site.

[cath_229.jpg] February 8, 1921. to Mr. J. S. Watkins, Division Engineer, Department of Public Roads and Highways, Laden, Harlan Co., Ky., from (unsigned), Secretary (initial: M). Reports that Mrs. Zande is ill due to the strain of 6 weeks at the trial and cannot meet with Watkins.

[cath_230.jpg] February 8, 1921. To Mr. J. S. Watkins, Division Engineer, state Roads & Highways, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Apologizes for missing the meeting with Watkins; grateful that Foster was put in charge; hopes for an expert powder man.

[cath_231.jpg] February 8, 1921. To Mr. S. M. Foster, Superintendent, Road Construction Camp, Laden, Harlan Co., Ky. from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Informs Foster that she wrote to Watkins in support of Foster; Asked the whereabouts of her dog, Fedo.

[cath_232.jpg] February 12, 1921. Page 1 of 2. To Mr. Joe S. Boggs, Dep’t. State Roads & Highways, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Zande describes Watkins’ visit with her after his meeting with Foster and states that she accepts Watkins’ decision as final; anxious about use of liquor at the camp.
[cath_233.jpg] Page 2 of 2.

[cath_234.jpg] February 12, 1921. TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). A positive appraisal of Mr. C.N. Green (sic), asst. warden of the state Reformatory and in charge of Road Construction Prison Camps; describes Green’s handling of criticism of camp operations.

[cath_235.jpg] February 14, 1921. To Mr. S. M. Foster, Dillon, Marian Co., Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Regrets that she will not be of help to him by going to Frankfort; has supported Foster in letters to Boggs; Watkin’s complaints are technical of which Zande knows little; urges Foster to meet with Boggs

[cath_236.jpg] February 15, 1921. To Mrs. S. M. Foster, Box 57, Vanceburg, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Thanks Mrs. Foster for her note: regrets that Mr. Foster has been dismissed from the Road construction; invites the couple to visit the School.

[cath_238.jpg] February 15, 1921. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Ky., from Joe S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer, Frankfort, Ky. Advises that his office has selected Mr. Brown as the new superintendent of convict labor; feels that dismissing Foster was the right decision; will advise Watkins about liquor at the camp

[cath_239.jpg] February 18, 1921. To Rufus Wilson Esq., Assistant Superintendent, Convict Labor, Dillon Ky., from (unsigned), Division Engineer. Directs Wilson to eliminate the liquor problem from the camp; reminds him that the camp has a “very bad reputation” and also that the press and the Contractor of Convict Labor would use convict problems as propaganda; inform all free labor employees and Capt. McQueary, guard supervisor, of the liquor prohibition.

[cath_237.jpg] February 25, 1921. To Mrs. S. M. Foster, Vanceburg, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Thanks Mrs. Foster for her 2 notes; appreciates her counsel to cooperate with Mr. Brown.

[cath_240.jpg] February 26, 1921. To Mr. J. S. Watkins, Division Engineer, Dep’t. State Roads & Highways, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Thanks Watkins for his letter to Wilson; will meet with Mr. Brown.

[cath_399.jpg] Handwritten list titled “Vouchers for Feby 1921” SEE [cath_391.jpg] for further description.

[cath_241.jpg] March 12, 1921. Handwritten letter to Mrs. de Long Zande from Rufus Wilson (on letterhead for Harlan County Prison Road Camp), Dillon, Ky. Encloses a newspaper clipping; informs her that ” J. W. McQueary saw the Doctor and Miss Parson talking at Pineville the morning they came up.” Invites Zande to see the Road.

[cath_242.jpg] March 15, 1921. To Mr. Rufus Wilson, Harlan County Prison Road Camp, Dillon, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande).Appreciates the clipping; asks for more facts from the station agent; delighted that Henry Creech is in charge of the prison camp; too busy to visit Road but invites Wilson to the School.

[cath_243.jpg] March 16, 1921. To Mr. Brown from (unsigned) Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande. Invites Brown to dinner, if he hasn’t been exposed to measles, per quarantine.

[cath_245.jpg] May 3, 1921. To Mr. S. M. Foster, Box 57, Vanceburg, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Tells of Brown’s visit at the School; Brown removed Bailey, who was drinking heavily; advises that Foster write Boggs concerning Brown’s corroboration of his opinion of Bailey.

[cath_246.jpg] June 4, 1921. To Mr. Joe S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer, Department of State Roads and Highways, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Describes meeting at the Road Camp with Watkins and Brown about the convicts shirking their work; suggests putting pressure on prison authorities for guards who will get work from the convicts.

[cath_247.jpg] June 4, 1921. Page 1 of 2. To Mr. C. N. Green, Kentucky State Reformatory, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Complains that the convict work is a failure; no work since Henry Creech left; asks Green and Mr. Bastin for “an organization which will deal honestly with the Road Department, as Henry Creech did?” Writes highly of Henry Creech and expresses regret that he resigned because he felt that he did not have the backing of the prison authorities.
[cath_248.jpg] Page 2 of 2.

[cath_249.jpg] June 5, 1921. To Hon. Joe S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned: initials “JSW” indicate J. S. Watkins), Division Engineer, Department of State Roads and Highways, Frankfort, Ky. Zande receives copy of notice concerning “Convict Labor in Harlan County,” stating that convicts, paid $1.50 per day each for 10 hours work, are only 50% efficient; due to laxity of the guards; informed each guard and Mr. McQueary that they work 10 hours a day or the camp will be removed.

[cath_250.jpg] June 22, 1921. Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, Ky., from J. S, Watkins, London, Ky. (on letterhead for Department of State Roads and Highways, Frankfort, Ky.) Describes conference in Frankfort of Board of Charities and Corrections and State Highways Commission about methods the Prison Dept used concerning the convicts on road construction. Assures Zande that the work will become more efficient and the person she referred to will be dismissed.

[cath_251.jpg] June 24, 1921. to Mr. J. S. Watkins, Division Engineer, State Dep’t. Roads & Highways, London, Ky. from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Pleased with the Frankfort conference’s actions.

[cath_252.jpg] June 21, 1921. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc., Harlan, Ky. from H. V. Bastin, Superintendent, Kentucky State Reformatory, Frankfort, Ky. Greene (sic) sent to Road Camp to reorganize and replace incompetent guards; wishes to hear from Zande about the work progress and discipline

[cath_253.jpg] June 28, 1921. To Mr. H.V. Bastin, Superintendent, Kentucky State Reformatory, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Very glad for the reorganization.

[cath_254.jpg] August 1, 1921. To Mrs. Ethel de Long Zande, Pine Mountain Settlement School, Inc., Harlan County, Ky. from H. V. Bastin, Superintendent, Kentucky State Reformatory, Frankfort, Ky. Requests updates from Zande on the Road work.

[cath_255.jpg] August 4, 1921. To Mr. H.V. Bastin, Sup’t., State Reformatory, Frankfort, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Reports that work is satisfactory; Mr. Brown, Superintendent, asks that the convicts are better fed; suggests that Bastin write a letter about rations to Mr. Daley.

[cath_360.jpg] August 10, 1921. To Mr. Carl G. Fisher, Miami, Fl., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Describes progress of the Road construction; “…almost to the top of the mountain on the far side.” Outlines plans to fund the rest of the Road; asks for payment of his $2,000 pledge.

[cath_401.jpg] June 1919-August 1921. Report concerning Pine Mountain Road, Harlan County, Kentucky, from Commonwealth of Kentucky Department of Public Roads. Lists months, dollar amounts, totals, superintendents (Williams, Foster and Brown) and their stations.

[cath_400.jpg] October 6, 1921. to Mr. Brown, Supt., Dillon Road Camp, Dillon, Ky. from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Praises Brown’s report on construction progress covering “the three seasons we have been at work on the road”; makes arrangements for a picnic for the convicts, guards, officers, engineers, etc.

[cath_363.jpg] October 8, 1921. To Mr. H. E. D. Jackson, Dudley Avenue, Westfield, N.J., from (unsigned). Subject: Asks for funds for ditching on the Road; hopes the State will incorporate the Road in its state highway system; four miles graded so far.

[cath_404.jpg] October 24, 1921. Page 1 of 2. To Mr. J. S. Watkins, Division Engineer, London, Ky., from (unsigned; initials “EZ” indicate Ethel Zande). Requested cost estimates for Road on “this side of the mountain” gives the amount of money currently raised by School; asks for steam shovel to remain at Laden.
[cath_405.jpg] Page 2 of 2.

[cath_403.jpg] [n.d.] Blank supply order form from the Commonwealth of Kentucky Department of State Roads and Highways. From “Superintendent in Charge of Convict Labor Work, Pine Mountain Settlement Roads.”
[cath_402.jpg] Reverse side of [cath_403.jpg]. Handwritten notations showing linear feet of road, dates, square feet, cost per square foot, and total; Calculating the amount of money remaining after the Road was graded to top of the mountain.

Laden Trail or The Road Correspondence: 1922

[cath_406.jpg] April 13, 1922. Copy of letter to Hon. Joe S. Boggs, State Highway Engineer, Frankfort, Ky., from J. S. Watkins, Division Engineer. Provides estimated cost of grading and drainage of the Road between top of Pine Mt. and the School road; also the cost of additional ditching and widening on the four miles already built.


SEE ALSO:

DANCING IN THE CABBAGE PATCH: LADEN TRAIL or THE ROAD Blog

LADEN TRAIL or THE ROAD Overview

LADEN TRAIL or THE ROAD CORRESPONDENCE PART I

LADEN TRAIL or THE ROAD PHOTO GALLERY

LAND USE