Pine Mountain Settlement School
Series 09: BIOGRAPHY Staff
Celia Cathcart 1919 Road Correspondence II
Published 2022-01-07 hw (images) /aae (contents)
CELIA CATHCART 1919 Road Correspondence II
(August – December)
Celia Cathcart (Holton): Teacher, Fundraiser 1915, 1918–1919;
Member, Board of Trustees & General Advisory Board
TAGS: Laden Trail road, Kentucky Department of Public Roads, Ethel de Long Zande, Celia Cathcart Holton, engineers, commissioners, Wasioto Lumber Company, Creech Coal Company, Kentenia Corporation, Cawood Hardware Company, attorneys, Fox & Peck Civil and Mining Engineers, convict labor camps, L&N Railroad, contributions, fundraising, Pine Mountain Road Fund, railroad side track (switch), O.B. Hollingsworth, J.R. Johnson, Rodman Wiley
CONTENTS: 1919 CELIA CATHCART Road Correspondence II
W. Wayne Barton – County Road Engineer, Harlan County Good Roads Committee, Harlan, KY.
Joe S. Boggs – Commissioner, Kentucky Department of Public Roads, Frankfort, KY. (Successor to Rodman Wiley).
A. Headley Card Jr. and A. Headley Card, Sr. – Wasioto Lumber Company, Pineville, KY.
R.W. Creech – President of Creech Coal Company, Inc., Miners and Shippers of Creech’s Kentenia Eastern Kentucky Coal, Twila, KY.
W.W. Eager – Largest stockholder of Cawood Hardware Co., Harlan, KY.
Judge J.S. Forester – County Attorney, Harlan, KY.
Horace E. Fox – Fox & Peck, Civil and Mining Engineers, Big Stone Gap, VA.
Col. George – Prison official in charge of all road camps.
O.B. Hollingsworth – Superintendent, Louisville & Nashville Railroad, Cumberland Valley Division, United States Railroad Administration, Middlesborough, KY.
Mrs. Celia Cathcart Holton – Former PMSS worker and representative of the School concerning Road construction.
J.R. Johnson – Division Engineer, Convict Labor Fund for Bell County, Kentucky Department of Public Roads, Pineville, KY.
Chad F. C. Lewis – Dillon, KY
F.G. Lewis – County Treasurer, Harlan, KY.
J.S. Watkins – J.R. Johnson’s successor as Division Engineer, Convict Labor Fund for Bell County, Kentucky Department of Public Roads, London, KY.
Rodman Wiley – Commissioner, Kentucky Department of Public Roads, Frankfort, KY.
Captain Theodore Williams – Superintendent in Charge, Kentucky Department of Public Roads, Dillon, KY,
Captain Winfrey – In charge of convict labor camp for the Pine Mountain Road.
Ethel de Long Zande – PMSS Co-Founder and Co-Director, 1913-1928.
[Note: Letters from PMSS staff in the PMSS Collections are carbon copies, typewritten, unsigned, and meant for the Office files. The original signed copies were sent to the correspondents. The initials at the bottom left of some PMSS letters indicate the writer (along with initials of the secretary). For example, “EZ” are the initials for Ethel de Long Zande. Letters to PMSS are typewritten originals, unless indicated otherwise.]
1919_08_00 April through August 1919. (Page 1 of 2.) “UNPAID ROAD PLEDGES,” listing names, amounts, % paid, and dates of notifications and payments.
1919_08_00a (Page 2 of 2.)
1919_08_04 (339) August 4, 1919. To “Friends” at Cawood Hardware Company, Harlan, KY, from EZ (Zande), who encloses their pledge card for $25 and reminding them that 50% is now due.
1919_08_04 (344) August 4, 1919. To Charles H. Davis, NYC, NY, from EZ (Zande), who had received a copy of Davis’s letter from Duffield regarding the Kentenia Corporation’s $250 pledge. She describes the road-building arrangements with the State of Kentucky and PMSS. If this is not “sufficient endorsement of the pledge, we will not call up on you for your contribution…until the road is complete. … You may be interested to know that the road goes through a part of the land you have given to the State of Kentucky.”
1919_08_04 (347) August 4, 1919. To H.M. Brock, Harlan, KY, from EZ (Zande), reminding him that payments on his pledge of $25 are now due.
1919_08_04a (348) August 4, 1919. To J.B. Carter, Harlan, KY, from (unsigned), reminding him that a payment on his pledge of $15 is now due.
1919_08_04 (349) August 4, 1919. To Gentlemen at Fox, Peck and Fox, Harlan, KY, from (unsigned), reminding them that the first two payments on their pledge of $25.00 are now due.
1919_08_06 August 6, 1919. Handwritten letter to PMSS from H.C. Rice, Master Commissioner, Harlan, KY, with an explanation for delaying his payment of his $25 pledge.
1919_08_08 August 8, 1919. To Forester, from EZ (Zande), requesting that he transfer the $5,000 (given by Harlan County for the Pine Mountain Road) to the special Pine Mountain Road Fund as soon as possible.
1919_08_09 August 9, 1919. To Zande from R.W. Creech, President of “Creech Coal Company, Inc., Miners and Shippers of Creech’s Kentenia Eastern Kentucky Coal, Twila, Kentucky.” He asks Zande to verify the $100 pledge she has written to the company about. Their $2000 contribution to the grade school at the head of Wallins Creek is all “that we will be able to finance.”
1919_08_12 N.D. (Later notations indicate August 12, 1919.) Handwritten note to PMSS from W.W. Barton, enclosing a $1009.58 check and asked for the “exact cause for this advancement so that I can keep my records straight.”
1919_08_14 (104) August 14, 1919. To W.W. Barton from (unsigned, likely Zande), explaining that PMSS paid Fox & Peck’s surveying bill of $1509.58. PMSS put in $500 as a donation for the Road and asks the County to refund $1009.58 to PMSS; also explains how the $500 will be handled so that “every penny spent on the road will appear on the county’s books and our books to have passed through the proper channels.”
1919_08_14dup (105) DUPLICATE IMAGE OF 1919_08_14 (104)
1919_08_14 (106) August 14, 1919. To F.G. Lewis, County Treasurer, Harlan, KY, from EZ (Zande), who asked him to reimburse PMSS’s $500 contribution, explaining how the $500 will be handled so that “every penny spent on the road may pass through the hands of the County Treasurer.”
1919_08_14 (351) August 14, 1919. To “Friends” at Creech Coal Co., Wallins Creek, KY, from EZ (Zande) explaining that in 1917, all the larger coal companies in Harlan County was asked to give $100 pledges; Creech Coal Co.’s pledge was made to Marguerite Butler. She explains why Creech Coal is being approached and how their contribution would help the county, “since your profits are very largely from this county … So far every coal company has met its pledge.” and $50,000 has been raised so far for the Road.
1919_08_21 August 21, 1919. To Zande from Theo. Williams, Superintendent in Charge, Kentucky Department of Public Roads, Dillon, KY, enclosing a letter from the L&N Railroad and asking for her help in getting the Railroad Co. “to put in a switch for us.” He also encloses “a proposition made by the A&H Card Co.”
1919_08_22 August 22, 1919. Handwritten letter to Mr. Hollingsworth from “(Mrs.) Ethel de Long Williams (sic, Zande),” asking him to “put the switch in at the terminus of the Pine Mt. road immediately. It’s impossible to proceed with (?) work without it. … We will pay all bills on presentation if the railroad will not.”
1919_08_25 August 25, 1919. To Zande from F.G. Lewis, enclosing a check of $500 for balance of Road survey by Fox & Peck.
1919_08_28 August 28, 1919. To PMSS from W.W. Eager, Cawood Hardware Co. (formerly, “Cawood Hdw & Fur. Co.”), Harlan, KY, enclosing $12.50 check for half payment on their pledge.
1919_08_29 August 29, 1919. To Zande from Hollingsworth, asking that PMSS send payment of the estimated cost of the side track ($1302.46), exclusive of cross ties, switch ties, labor, and grading (which PMSS is responsible for). The amount will be returned to Zande if L&N Railroad pays for the track construction.
1919_08_31 (345) August 31, 1919. To Zande from a letter prepared for Charles Henry Davis, Cape Cod, MA, stating that the pledge will be paid when advised by Duffield that the Road is finished.
1919_08_31a (346) August 31, 1919. (Handwritten notations on the reverse side of the letter listing several names.
1919_09_02 September 2, 1919. To Celia (Cathcart) Holton in London, OH, from J.E. Miller, Manager, E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Company, Hunting, WVA, responding to her August 25th letter. “…(W)e cannot consider a donation (of dynamite) to the State of Kentucky.”
1919_09_03 (108) September 3, 1919. To Rodman Wiley, State Road Commissioner, Frankfort, KY, from EZ (Zande), writing of her regret that he is resigning and wishing he could ride on the Pine Mountain Road. She describes riding over the first half-mile and the pride she feels for it.
1919_09_03 (109) September 3, 1919. To J.R. Johnson, Pineville, KY, from (possibly Zande; 2nd page is missing). Zande expresses her worry that Wiley’s concessions will not be understood by his successor. “You know Mr. Wiley is not much of a correspondent, and I never could get him to write down his agreement with us in black and white.” She describes her visit to the road with Captain Winfrey and her pride in it. Winfrey has told her that “the convicts cannot stay on the job much longer unless they have more provision made for their comfort.” She asks if the County will pay for improvements; if not, “the matter must be in your jurisdiction.” She updates Johnson concerning the switch.
1919_09_03 (265) September 3, 1919. To Chad Lewis, Dillon, KY, from EZ (Zande), telling him of her conversation with Mr. Williams about charging Mr. Card or anyone else to use the switch. “…(B)y law, our switch cannot be regarded as a private switch, since it is on railroad land.”
1919_09_07 September 7, 1919. To Zande from (unsigned; later notation indicates “Johnson?”) in Pineville, KY, responding to her September 3 letter. He assures her that “the approval of the plans furnishes evidence enough of Mr. Wiley’s intentions, and his successor Mr. Boggs is broad minded and reasonable.” He agrees to “look after the comfort of the convicts.”
1919_09_08 September 8, 1919. To Zande from Hollingsworth, who is “now authorized by our Management to construct this track at the expense of the L&N Railroad and deposit of $1302.48 made by you will be refunded.”
1919_09_09 (111) September 9, 1919. To Zande from Joe.S. Boggs, Kentucky Department of Public Roads, Frankfort, KY (successor to Rodman Wiley). Boggs assures Zande that “the affairs of this office will be constructed along the same lines as was laid out by Mr. Wiley.” He has known Wiley for years and describes him as “one of the greatest highway commissioners in our country.”
1919_09_09 (113) September 9, 1919. To Holton from Boggs, responding to her September 5 letter addressed to Wiley. Boggs thanks her for the compliments she wrote about Wiley’s efforts toward the Road construction. He tells her that his Department will find a good engineer to complete the survey.
1919_09_09a (112) September 9, 1919. Reverse side of the letter showing scribbling.
1919_09_12 September 12, 1919. To Zande from Hollingsworth, who is sending her a voucher for $1302.48 to cover the refund of the amount deposited for the siding.
1919_09_15 (114) September 15, 1919. To Boggs from EZ (Zande), thanking him for his September 9 letter. She is pleased that the State secured as Commissioner “somebody who is thoroughly interested in roads rather than road politics.”
1919_09_15 (268) September 15, 1919. To Hollingsworth from EZ (Zande), who appreciates that L&N Railroad will build the switch. She asks if the Railroad will also pay for the ties, grading, and the $20 paid for surveying.
1919_09_17 September 17, 1919. To Zande from Hollingsworth, who will send a voucher for the ties and grading but cannot refund the $20 for surveying.
1919_09_19 September 19, 1919. To Zande from Boggs, who thanks her for her September 15 letter.
1919_09_22 September 22, 1919. To Zande from Williams, informing her that L&N Railroad will pay for the grading of the switch and the ties; asked for an itemized bill.
1919_09_24 (116) September 24, 1919. To Johnson from EZ (Zande), who received “another request from Capt. Winfrey to make things more comfortable for the convicts. … The poor things seem to be freezing. Mr. Zande and I are very much amused and rather embarrassed by the fact that the Railroad has named the new station stop ‘Zande.’ It is a new kind of namesake for us!”
1919_09_24 (271) September 24, 1919. To Hollingsworth from EZ (Zande), who explains why she and Mr. Zande feel that “Zande” should not be used. She suggests naming the new stop “The Crossing” or “Pine Mountain School.”
1919_09_29 September 29, 1919. Side 1 of a two-sided page with two handwritten letters to Zande from Johnson. He had accepted the Chair of Applied Mathematics in the College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, and regrets “leaving the Pine Mountain road more than all else in my district.” He also regrets “that I could not stay till the road is completed, and (I send) my heart’s best wishes for the future of the school and for all the noble women who are working for its success.”
1919_09_29a (Side 2). N.D. To Zande from Johnson. He was waiting for Col. George to tell him what changes he would require. Now Mr. Williams may be able to handle this, but advises not to “do any flooring or ceiling before hearing from Col. George. My successor is J.S. Watkins, London, Ky.” (Later notation at top of page: “Miss Butler[?]: Attention.”)
1919_10_01 October 1, 1919. A carbon copy of an invoice from Cawood Hardware Company to County Court Camp, Nolansburg, KY, for stoves and pipe, totaling $51.80, “chg Pine Mt. Sett. School by [?].” (Later notation: This was charged to the County.”)
1919_10_04 October 4, 1919. To Johnson at University of Kentucky, Lexington, from EZ (Zande). “I am perfectly overwhelmed to be the only one of the old guard on the Pine Mountain Road! Of course, I know you must have undertaken the work you are doing because you will be happier doing it, but we shall miss you very much, and I cannot help feeling a good deal of anxiety that you are not coming once a week to see about the road. I always felt that it was so safe in your hands. I hear Mr. Watkins is called in the hotel, “a young boy,” and hope he is not going to cut his wisdom teeth on our road!” She updates him on the stoves, floor, and building paper for the Convict Camp.
1919_10_06 October 6, 1919. A receipt for $7.00 from the Commonwealth of Kentucky (via Theo. Williams), paid to James Carrel “for 20 hours work building chimleys (sic) at Prison Camp.”
1919_10_06a October 6, 1919. Reverse side of receipt. “Pine Mountain School.”
1919_10_15 October 15, 1919. A bill from Wasioto Lumber Company, Pineville, KY, to “Ky Road Fund” for $157.19 for oak and beech flooring “ordered for Prison Camp by Williams for Pine Mountain School….”
1919_11_21 November 21, 1919. To Boggs from (truncated page, likely Zande), who expresses surprise that the convicts were removed and asks Boggs to get them back. She is also concerned about the cost of the road construction and is waiting for an estimate from the State. She worries about what she hears regarding the leadership of the latest division engineer in charge of convict labor and asks for assurance from Boggs that he will “take it upon yourself to assume special care of this road. The money was raised among private individuals who wanted this school and this community to be placed in touch with the railroad; if it is being frittered away, it is a more than uncommon pity.”
1919_11_25 (177) November 25, 1919. To Zande from Boggs, who explains that the Board of Control had ordered a recall of all convicts; the camps will be closed until early spring. He assures her that he will use his “best efforts” toward the completion of the Road.
1919_11_25 (272) November 25, 1919. To Zande from Hollingsworth, who again asks her to supply an itemized bill for the cost of grading, ties, etc. so that he can refund PMSS.
1919_11_25 (273) November 25, 1919. To Zande from Williams, enclosing a bill for the lumber for the prison camp flooring and for the $7.00 to James Carrel for the chimneys he built.
1919_11_25 (275) November 25, 1919. A statement from Wasioto Lumber Company for Pine Mountain School, listing costs of oak and beech lumber and freight, totaling $157.19.
1919_11_25a (276) November 25, 1919. To Williams from A. Headley Card Jr., Wasioto Lumber Company, Pineville, KY, enclosing a statement concerning flooring purchased by PMSS.
1919_11_28 November 28, 1919. To Mr. Chad Lewis, Dillon, KY, from EZ (Zande), asking him to tell her his opinion of Captain Williams. She also asks if he is taking care of the camp supplies and the carload of coal.
1919_11_29 (277) November 29, 1919. To Hollingsworth from EZ (Zande), enclosing a statement of cost of the switch at Laden, and a statement of the cost of ties, totaling $991.55, for payment by the railroad.
1919_11_29a (278) November 29, 1919. To A. Headley Card, assuring him that the railroad will reimburse him for the ties. She asks him to donate the lumber for the prison camp.
1919_12_01 December 1, 1919. To Williams from EZ (Zande), He cannot reimburse PMSS for the $7.00 paid to Carrel for chimney repairs until the County authorities advise on how the check should be drawn.
1919_12_01a December 1, 1919. To Forester from (unsigned, likely Zande), asking advice on whether to draw the check for Carrel from the road fund that is in the hands of the County.
1919_12_02 December 2, 1919. To Hollingsworth from EZ (Zande), confirming that he has sent an itemized bill for the work on the switch and materials.
1919_12_05 December 5, 1919. Page 1 of a two-page letter to Zande from Hollingsworth, who points out excessive charges on the bill for the cost of the switch; asks Zande for corrections.
1919_12_05a (Page 2) Asks whether the Railroad or PMSS should pay Lewis for the crossties.
1919_12_08 December 8, 1919. To Hollingsworth, from EZ (Zande), who is “staggered” by the cost of the switch; will consult the State Road Department about the grading bill. Questions paying Mr. Card and Mr. Lewis for delivering ties.
1919_12_08a December 8, 1919. To Watkins from EZ (Zande) with questions about the overcharges for hauling railroad ties and grading the switch. She plans to turn in the criticism of Mr. Williams’ management to Boggs.
1919_12_08b December 8, 1919. To Card from EZ (Zande), asking if he charged for “ties in the woods or ties delivered to the railroad?”
1919_12_12 (120) December 12, 1919. To Johnson at the University of Kentucky, Lexington, from EZ (Zande), asking his opinion of Winfry’s criticisms of Williams’ competence.
1919_12_12 (121) December 12, 1919. To Boggs from EZ (Zande), asking that a tank of gasoline be moved to a safer place; and for more convicts next spring.
1919_12_12 (284) December 12, 1919. To Williams, explaining that he will be paid $7.00 (which he advanced to Carrel) after receiving advice from the County Treasurer as to how to draw from the Road Fund which is in the County’s treasury.
1919_12_15 December 15, 1919. To Zande from Watkins, correcting her on the cost of the switch: He recalls that the ties were furnished free by Mr. Chad Lewis, but the hauling to the proposed switch was $8.00 a day. As to the criticisms of Williams, he asks that she “take each and every one of them up with me” so he can investigate.
1919_12_16 December 16, 1919. To Zande from Boggs, advising her how to dispose of the gasoline; also that she will have to ask the new Board of Control for extra convicts for next year.
1919_12_19 (123) December 19, 1919. To Lewis from EZ (Zande), reporting that the Road Commissioner authorized Lewis “to dispose of the gasoline and forward the money obtained by selling it to the Office of the Road Commissioner.
1919_12_19 (292) December 19, 1919. To Watkins from EZ (Zande), explaining the selling of the ties by him and by Card. She feels it is “quite probable that some of the criticism of Williams which I have heard is unfounded.” She will talk with the steam shovel man (Mr. McEuon) from Knoxville.
1919_12_21 (292) December 19, 1919. Page 1 of a two-page letter to Watkins from EZ (Zande), providing details of the bill that Williams made for the grading at Laden (ties and hauling), which she describes as excessive charges and should not be charged to the Railroad. She then explains the “false economy” Williams practiced by employing teams at the same price which were of different qualities and dispensing with a powder man.
1919_12_21a (Page 2) Zande asks Williams to get a first-hand look at the site, as “This is said to be the most difficult piece of engineering in Kentucky and I think the situation is serious enough to justify (my) asking you to come.”
1919_12_23 To Zande from Holton. She gives the reasons she and her husband, Caryl, declines Zande’s proposition that he take over Williams’ responsibilities. She has sent books to the girls at Laurel House and the Outlook magazine for the boys at Farm House.
1919_12_26 To Zande from Hollingsworth, responding to her December 21 letter concerning “making Laden a passenger stop. The question of private ownership and Government ownership of Railroads has not yet been settled and until such time as it is, we desire to let the matter stand as at present.”
1919_12_29 To F.G. Lewis from (unsigned), enclosing a check for $1220.66, which was a contribution toward the Road Fund.
1919_12_30 To A. Headley Card Sr. from EZ (Zande), asking him to transfer his offer of a donation of ties to a donation of lumber for the prison camp repairs.
CELIA CATHCART Staff – Biography
ETHEL De LONG ZANDE 1917 Correspondence
LADEN TRAIL or THE ROAD – Prospectus and history and other links.
LADEN TRAIL or THE ROAD CORRESPONDENCE Part I – 1916–1919
LADEN TRAIL or THE ROAD CORRESPONDENCE Part II – 1920-1921
LADEN TRAIL or THE ROAD Photo Gallery
GALLERY: 1919 CELIA CATHCART Road Correspondence II