Pine Mountain Settlement School
Series 9: Biography A-Z
Staff at PMSS

CAROLINE HEINZ, Secretary & Housemother, 1925-1927

TAGS: Caroline Heinz ; Caroline Heinz Zande ; Caroline Zande ; secretaries ; bookkeepers ; housemothers ; Zande Family ; Ethel de Long Zande ; Luigi Zande ; Angela Melville ; Allenstand ; American Enka Company ; 

CAROLINE HEINZ: Pine Mountain Settlement School

As a member of the staff of Pine Mountain Settlement School, Caroline Heinz provided support as a secretary/bookkeeper and a housemother from 1925-1927. She became a good friend of the Zande family, which consisted of Ethel de Long Zande, the co-director of the School, her husband Luigi Zande, the School’s stonemason, builder and teacher, and their two children, Alberto and Elena.

By February 1928, Caroline had returned to her home in Chicago, Illinois, where she possibly had found a job. Letters to and from Ethel Zande, indicate their continued friendship. In a letter dated February 3, 1928, Ethel tried to entice Caroline to return to Pine Mountain to help in the Office during Caroline’s vacation:

The main purpose of this letter is to ask you if you don’t want to spend your vacation at Pine Mountain, running the office. That would be the very nicest thing that could happen and I hope your heart will leap up as Wordsworth’s did at the rainbow, when you read this invitation! If you are inclined to this proposition at all, let us know right off when your vacation is going to come, and how long you could stay, and what salary you could come for.

No record has been found in the PMSS Collections indicating that Caroline accepted Ethel’s offer. The last letter on file from Ethel to Caroline, dated February 6, 1928, asked for her help with fundraising for the School.

When Ethel died in March 1928 Caroline assisted Luigi Zande (via correspondence from Chicago) in negotiating all the changes that the premature death of Ethel brought to the family.

On November second of the same year, Caroline received a letter from Angela Melville, who became interim director following Ethel’s death. Caroline was again being asked to help:

Unfortunately, we are looking for a secretary as soon as we can get her. Miss Caldwell has been advised by our doctor not to spend the winter here. Can you help us by trying to interest the right kind of candidate for this position? I would be willing anyone you would recommend without seeing her. However, if it takes more time than that to find the jewel for whom we are looking, perhaps you could get any possible candidates lined up for me so that I can interview them when I am in Chicago. Please feel sure of my gratitude for anything you can do. You know what an important position this is and how much I must rely upon my secretary. I know you will do everything you can for me.

Caroline responded that she would do what she could, but had not “an idea in the world.” Angela soon informed her that Miss Conn was hired as the School’s bookkeeper.

CAROLINE HEINZ: Asheville, North Carolina

Luigi left Pine Mountain, Kentucky, at the end of June 1928, after 14 years at the School. He spent several months in Wilmington, Delaware, possibly with family members. In October 1928, he moved from Wilmington to Asheville, North Carolina, for a job with the American Enka Company. Founded that same year, the company was a manufacturer of synthetic yarn such as rayon.

During this time, Luigi and Caroline continued to stay in contact. They married c. 1930, at which time Luigi’s children, Elena and Alberto, joined them in Asheville.

In Asheville, Caroline continued an interest in craft and, with a close friend, she worked with Allenstand, an early craft shop. The shop was founded by Frances Goodrich, who had established an Asheville store in 1932 that later became the foundation for the Southern Highlands Craft Guild.


The 1900 U.S. Census records a Caroline Heinz at 7 years old, born 1893. At the time, she was living in La Salle City, Illinois, with her widowed mother, Mary (b. 1870), and her 9-year-old sister Sophia (b. 1890). All three were born in Illinois; the mother’s parents were born in Germany. Caroline and Sophia’s father was born in Germany. (Whether this is the same “Caroline Heinz” as the one in this biography has not yet been confirmed.)


Caroline Heinz

Alt. Title

Caroline Heinz Zande ; Caroline Zande ; Mrs. Luigi Zande ;




Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY

Alt. Creator

Ann Angel Eberhardt ; Helen Hayes Wykle ;

Subject Keyword

Caroline Zande ; Caroline Heinz Zande ; Caroline Zande ; Mrs. Luigi Zande ; Pine Mountain Settlement School ; secretaries ; bookkeepers ; housemothers ; Zande Family ; Ethel de Long Zande ; Luigi Zande ; Angela Melville ; correspondence ; Allenstand ; Frances Goodrich ; Southern Highlands Craft Guild ; Miss Conn ; Miss Caldwell ; American Enka Company ; Chicago, IL ; Asheville, NC ; La Salle City, IL ; Germany ; Wilmington, DE ; 

Subject LCSH

Zande, Caroline Heinz, — 1893 – (?)
Pine Mountain Settlement School (Pine Mountain, Ky.) — History.
Harlan County (Ky.) — History.
Education — Kentucky — Harlan County.
Rural schools — Kentucky — History.
Schools — Appalachian Region, Southern.




Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY.


Michael L. Zande, Luigi Zande’s grandson.


Collections ; text ; image ;


Original and copies of documents and correspondence in file folders in filing cabinet


Series 09: Biography – Staff/Personnel.




Is related to: Pine Mountain Settlement School Collections, Series 09: Biography – Staff/Personnel.

Coverage Temporal

1870 – 1929

Coverage Spatial

Pine Mountain, KY ; Harlan County, KY ; Chicago, IL ; Asheville, NC ; La Salle City, IL ; Germany ; Wilmington, DE ;


Any display, publication, or public use must credit the Pine Mountain Settlement School. Copyright retained by the creators of certain items in the collection, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.




Core documents, correspondence, writings, and administrative papers of Caroline Heinz Zande ; clippings, photographs, books by or about Caroline Heinz Zande ;




“[Identification of Item],” [Collection Name] [Series Number, if applicable]. Pine Mountain Settlement School Institutional Papers. Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY.

Processed By

Helen Hayes Wykle ; Ann Angel Eberhardt ;

Last Updated

2017-07-04 aae ;



Caroline Heinz Correspondence and Guide to PMSS Workers. Series 09: Biography – Staff/Personnel. Pine Mountain Settlement School Institutional Papers. Pine Mountain Settlement School, Pine Mountain, KY. Internet resource.

DeLong, Thomas A. “The DeLongs of New York and Brooklyn: a Huguenot Family Portrait.” Sasco Associates, Southport, Connecticut: 1972. Print.
Full text of this book is located online at: [accessed 07-01-2017] Internet resource.

“United States Census, 1900,” database with images, FamilySearch  ( : 5 August 2014 – Accessed 07-04-2017), Illinois > La Salle > ED 60 La Salle Township La Salle city Ward 6 > image 22 of 30; citing NARA microfilm publication T623 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.). Internet resource.


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