ELLWOOD J. CARR BOTANICAL COLLECTION – FLORA CHECKLIST

Pine Mountain Settlement School
Series 23: Elwood J. Carr Botanical Collection

E.J. CARR BOTANICAL COLLECTION – FLORA CHECKLIST

Prepared for EE Program by Amy V. McIntosh (EKU) for Pine Mountain Settlement School.

TAGS: Ellwood J. Carr; Botanical Collections; Pine Mountain Settlement School; Harlan County, KY; biographies; flora checklist; botany; medicinal plants; edible plants; seeds; botanical specimens; Amy V. McIntosh;


Flora Checklist of Pine Mountain Settlement School

LYCOPODIOPHYTA

Lycopodiaceae

Lycopodium digitatum A. Braun. Ground Cedar. Occasional. [87-1731,P-591, P-937].

Lycopodium lucidulum Michx. Shining Clubmoss. Infrequent. [87-1648, 88-529].

POLYPODIOPHYTA

Adiantaceae

Adiantum pedatum L. Maidenhair Fern. Occasional. [87-1683, 88-504, P-571].

Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link. Purple-stem Cliffbrake. Rare. [P-989].

Aspleniaceae

Asplenium montanum Willd. Mountain Spleenwort. Infrequent. [P-666].

Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes. Ebony Spleenwort. Occasional. [P-1175].

Asplenium resiliens Kunze. Black-stalked Spleenwort. Infrequent. [P-1025].

Asplenium rhizophyllum L. Walking Fern. Occasional. [88-228, P-702].

Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth. Lady Fern. Occasional. [P-794].

Athyrium pycnocarpon (Spreng.) Tidestr. Glade Fern. Occasional. [97-836, P-1044].

Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernh. Occasional. [88-595, P-703].

Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. Fragile Fern. Occasional. [87-1644, P-485, P-603].

Dryopteris goldiana (Hook.) A. Gray. Goldies Fern. Infrequent. [P-704].

Dryopteris intermedia (Willd.) A. Gray. Intermediate Shield Fern. Frequent. [87-1685, P-570, P-842].

Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray. Marginal Shield Fern. Frequent. [87-1682, 97-838, P-705, P-830, P-909].

Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott. Christmas Fern. Abundant. [87-1688, 97-846, P-289].

Thelypteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) Weatherby. Broad Beech-fern. Occasional. [P-701, P-983].

Thelypteris novaboracensis Nieuwl. New York Fern. Frequent. [87-1641, P-829, P-878].

Dennstaedticeae

Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore. Infrequent. Hay-scented Fern.

Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Bracken Fern. Occasional.

Onocleaceae

Onoclea sensibilis L. Sensitive Fern. Occasional.

Ophioglossaceae

Botrychium dissectum Spreng. Lace-frond Grape-fern. Occasional.

Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. Rattlesnake Fern. Frequent.

Osmundaceae

Osmunda cinnamomea L. Cinnamon Fern. Occasional.

Osmunda claytoniana L. Interrupted Fern. Rare, transplanted.

Osmunda regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray. Royal Fern. Occasional.

Polypodiaceae

Polypodium virginianum L. Virginia Polypody. Frequent.

Schizaeaceae

Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.) Sw. Climbing Fern. Rare.


PINOPHYTA

Cupressaceae

Juniperus virginiana L. Eastern Redcedar. Occasional.

Pinaceae

Pinus rigida Mill. Pitch Pine. Abundant.

Pinus strobus L. White Pine. Occasional.

Pinus taeda L. Loblolly Pine. Infrequent.

Pinus virginiana Mill. Scrub Pine. Abundant.

Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. Eastern Hemlock. Abundant.


MAGNOLIOPHYTA

Aceraceae

Acer negundo L. Box-elder. Rare, planted.

Acer pensylvanicum L.. Striped maple. Rare.

Acer rubrum L. Red Maple. Abundant.

Acer saccharum Marsh. Sugar Maple. Abundant.

Alismataceae

Alisma subcordatum Raf. Southern Water-plantain. Occasional.

Sagittaria calycina Engelm. Mississippi Arrow-head. Infrequent.

Amaranthaceae

*Amaranthus cruentus L. Red Amaranthus. Rare.

*Amaranthus hybridus L. Smooth Pigweed. Occasional.

*Amaranthus retroflexus L. Redroot Pigweed. Occasional.

Anacardiaceae

Rhus glabra L. Smooth Sumac. Occasional.

Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze. Poison Ivy. Abundant.

Annonaceae

Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal. Paw-paw. Abundant.

Apiaceae

Angelia venenosa (Greenway) Fern. Hairy Angelica. Infrequent.

Chaerophyllum tainturieri Hook. Southern Chervil. Occasional.

Cicuta maculata L. Water Hemlock. Occasional.

*Conium maculatum L. Poison Hemlock. Rare.

Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC. Honewort. Frequent.

*Daucus carota L. Wild Carrot. Frequent.

Erigenia bulbosa (Michx.) Nutt. Harbinger-of-Spring. Occasional

?Osmorbiza claytoni (Michx.) Clarke. Hairy Sweet Cicely. Frequent.

?Aster pilosus (Willd.) Raf. Water-dropwort. Infrequent.

Sanicula canadensis L. Black Snakeroot. Frequent.

Sanicula gregaria Bickn. Clustered Sanicle. Occasional.

Sanicula trifoliata E. Bickn. Beaked Sanicle. Occasional.

Taenidia integerrima (L.) Drude. Yellow Pimpernel. Occasional.

Thaspium barbinode (Michx.) Nutt. Bearded Meadow Parsnip. Frequent.

Thaspium trifoliatum (L.) Gray. Purple Meadow Parsnip. Occasional.

Zizia aptera (Gray) Fern. Golden Alexander. Occasional.

Zizia trifoliata (Michx.) Fern. Mountain Golden Alexander. Infrequent.

Apocynaceae

Apocynum cannabinum L. Indian Hemp. Infrequent.

*Vinca minor L. Lesser Perwinkle. Frequent.

Aquifoliaceae

Ilex opaca Ait. American Holly. Occasional.

Araceae

Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott. Indian Turnip. Abundant.

Araliaceae

Aralia racemosa L. American Spikenard. Infrequent.

*Hedera helix L. English Ivy. Frequent.

Panax quinquefolius L. American Ginseng. Rare.

Aristolochiaceae

Aristolochia macrophylla Lam. Pipevine. Abundant.

Aristolochia serpentaria L. Virginia Snakeroot. Rare.

Asarum canadense L. Wild Ginger. Abundant.

Hexastylis arifolia (Michx.) Small. Little Brown Jug. Frequent.

Asclepiadaceae

Asclepias exaltata L. Poke Milkweed. Rare.

Asclepias quadrifolia Jacq. Whorled Milkweed. Occasional.

Asclepias syriaca L. Common Milkweed. Infrequent.

Asclepias tuberosa L. Butterfly Weed. Infrequent.

Asteraceae

*Achillea millefolium L. Yarrow. Occasional.

*Achillea millefolium L. f. rosea Rand. & Redf. Infrequent, cultivated.

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common Ragweed. Frequent.

Ambrosia trifida L. Giant Ragweed. Frequent.

Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richardson. Plantain Pussytoes.

*Anthemis cotula L. Chamonile. Rare.

*Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. Burdock. Occasional.

*Artemisia vulgaris L. Common Mugwort. Occasional.

Aster cordifolius L. L. Blus Heart-leaved Aster. Abundant.

Aster divaricatus L. White Wood Aster. Abundant.

Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britt. Goblet Aster. Occasional.

Aster linariifolis L. Stiff Aster. Infrequent.

Aster patens Ait. var. patens. Clasping Aster. Frequent.

Aster patens Ait. var. phlogifolius (Muhl.) Nees. Clasping Aster. Rare.

Aster paternus Cronq. Toothed White-topped Aster. Occasional.

Aster pilosus Willd. Frostweed Aster. Frequent.

Aster prenanthoides Muhl. Crooked-stemmed Aster. Abundant.

Aster surculosus Michx. Rare.

Aster umbellatus Mill. Flat-topped White Aster. Occasional.

Aster undulatus L. Wavy-leaved Aster. Frequent.

Bidens bipinnata L. Spanish Needles. Infrequent.

Bidens frondosa L. Leafy Beggars-ticks. Occasional.

Bidens polylepis S.F. Blake. Ozark Tickseed-sunflower. Occasional.

Cacalia atriplicifolia. L. Pale Indian plantain.

*Centaurea cyanus L. Cornflower. Infrequent, cultivated.

*Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. Ox-eye Daisy. Occasional.

Chrysopsis mariana (L.) Ell. Shaggy Golden Aster. Occasional.

*Cichorium intybus L. Chicory. Rare.

Cirsium discolor (Muhl.) Sprengel. Field Thistle. Occasional.

*Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore. Bull Thistle. Infrequent.

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. Occasional.

Coreopsis auriculata L. Lobed Tickseed sunflower. Infrequent.

Coreopsis major Walt. Whorled Tickseed sunflower. Occasional.

*Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Cultivated Cosmos. Infrquent, cultivated.

Echinacea pupurea (L.) Moench. Purple Coneflower. Rare.

Elephantopus carolinianus Willd. Elephant’s Foot. Occasional.

Erechitites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. Fireweed. Occasional.

Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. Daisy Fleabane. Frequent.

Erigeron philidelphiacus L. Philadelphia Daisy. Frequent.

Erigeron strigosus Muhl. Whitetop Fleabane. Frequent.

Eupatorium coelestinum L. Blue Mistflower. Occasional.

Eupatorium fistulosum Barratt. Hollow-stemmed Joe-pye Weed. Frequent.

Eupatorium purpureum L. Purple Joe-pye Weed. Infrequent.

Eupatorium rotundifolium L. Round-leaved Eupatorium. Infrequent.

Eupatorium rugosum Houtt. White Snakeroot. Frequent.

Eupatorium serotinum Michx. Late Thoroughwort. Frequent.

*Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pavon. Peruvian Daisy. Abuundant.

Gnaphalium obtusifolium L. Old-field Balsam. Infrequent.

Ganphalium purpureum L. Purple Cudweed. Occasional.

Helianthus decapetalus L. Forest Sunflower. Infrequent.

Helianthus hirsutus Raf. Hairy Sunflower. Occasional.

Helianthus microcephalus T. & G. Small-headed Sunflower. Occasional.

Helianthus tuberosus L. Jerusalem Artichoke. Infrequent.

Hieracium gronovii L. Hairy Hawkweed. Occasional.

Hieracium paniculatum L. Panicled Hawkweed. Occasional.

*Hieracium caespitosum Dumont. Yellow-King-devil. Rare.

Hieracium venosum L. Veiny Hawkweed. Occasional.

Krigia biflora (Walt.) S.F. Blake. Orange Dwarf dandelion. Occasional.

Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fern. Infrequent.

Lactuca canadensis L. Wild Lettucce. Occasional.

Lactuca floridana (L.) Gaertn. Blue Lettuce. Infrquent.

Lactuca sativa L. Lettuce. Rare, cultivated.

*Lactuca serroila L. Prickly Lettuce. Occasional.

Liatris spicata Willd. Blazing Star. Rare, cultivated.

Prenanthes altissima L. Tall White Lettuce. Frequent.

Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton. Eastern Coneflower. Infrequent.

Rudbeckia hirta L. Brown-eyed Susan. Infrquent.

?Rubbeckia ?? L. Tall Coneflower. Occasional.

?? ?? ?? Three-lobed Coneflower. Occasional.

Senecio anonymus A. Wood. Appalachian Groundsel. Occasional.

Senecio aureus L. Heart-leaved Ragwort. Infrequent.

Solidago arguta Aiton. Forest-goldenrod. Infrequent.

Solidago bicolor L. Silver-rod. Frequent.

Solidago caesia L. Axillary Goldenrod. Abundant.

Solidago canadensis L. Common Goldenrod. Abundant.

Solidago flexicaulis L. Zig-zag Goldenrod. Abundant.

Solidago juncea Ait. Early Goldenrod. Rare.

Solidago nemoralis Ait. Old-field Goldenrod. Frequent.

Solidago odorata Ait. Licorice-goldenrod. Occasional.

Solidago rugosa Ait. Wrinkle-leafed Aster. Frequent.

*Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. Prickly Sow-thistle. Occasional.

*Tagetes patula L. French Marigold. Occasional, cultivated.

*Tanacetum vulgare L. Tansy. Infrequent, cultivated.

*Taraxacum officinale Weber. Common Dandelion. Aundant.

*Tussilago farfara L. Coltsfoot. Occasional.

Verbesina alternifolia (L.) Britt. Yellow Wingstem. Frequent.

Veronia gigantea (Walt.) Trel. Tall Ironweed. Frequent.

Xanthium strumarium L. Common Cocklebur. Occasional.

*Zinnia elegans Jacq. Youth-and-Old-Age. Infrequent, cultivated.

Balsaminaceae

*Impatiens balsamina L. Garden Balsam. Infrequent, cultivated.

Impatiens capensis Meerb. Orange Jewelweed. Abundant.

Impatiens pallida Nurtt. Abundant.

Berberidaceae

*Berberis thunbergii DC. Japanese Barberry. Infrequent, planted.

Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx. Blue Cohosh. Abundant.

Podophyllum peltatum L. May Apple. Abundant.

Betulaceae

Betula lenta L. Sweet Birch. Occasional.

Carpinus caroliniana Walt. Hornbeam. Abundant.

Corylus americana Walt. Hazelnut. Occasional.

Ostyra virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch. Hop Hornbeam. Frequent.

Bignoniaceae

Bignonia capreolata L. Crossvine. Occasional.

Boraginaceae

Cynoglossum virginianum L. Wild. Comfrey. Occasional.

Mertensia virginica (L.) Pers. Virginia Bluebells. Infrequent, transplanted.

*Myosotis scorpioides L. Forget-me-nots. Frequent.

*Symphytum officinale L. Common Comfrey. Infrequent, cultivated.

Brassicaceae

*Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Mouse-ear Cress. Rare.

Arabis laevigata (Muhl.) Poir. Smooth Rock-cress. Frequent.

*Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Yellow Rocket. Frequent.

*Brassica nigra L. Black Mustard. Infrequent, cultivated.

*Brassica rapa L. Mustard. Rare, cultivated.

?*C?? bursa pastoris (L.) Medic. Occasional.

?? ?? ?? O.E. Shultz. Appalachian Toothwort. Frequent.

Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) O. Schwarz. Cut-leaved Toothwort. Frequent.

Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) A. Wood. Broad-leaf Toothwort. Infrequent.

*Cardamine hirsuta L. Hairy Bittercress. Abundant.

Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. Pennsylvanian Bittercress. Rare.

*Draba verna L. Whitlow Grass. Frequent.

*Hesperis matronalis L. Sweet Rocket. Frequent.

Lepidium virginicum L. Poor-man’s Pepper. Occasional.

*Lunaria annua L. Money Plant. Rare, cultivated.

*Raphanus sativus L. Radish. Infrequent, cultivated.

*Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek. Water-cress. Abundant.

Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser var. fernaldiana (Butters & Abbe) Stuckey. Occasional. Common Yellow Cress.

*Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. Hedge-mustard. Infrequent.

Calycanthaceae

Calycanthus floridus L. Sweet-Shrub. Rare, transplanted.

Campanulaceae

Campanula americana L. American Bellflower. Infrequent.

Campanula divaricata Michx. Southern Bellflower. Infrequent.

Lobelia cardinalis L. Cardinal Flower. Infequent.

Lobelia inflata L. Indian Tobacco. Occasional.

Lobelia puberula Michx. Downy Lobelia. Occasional.

Lobelia siphilitica L. Great Blue Lobelia. Occasional.

Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl. Venus Looking Glass. Infrequent.

Caprifoliaceae

*Lonicera japonica Thunb. Japanese Honeysuckle. Frequent.

Sambucus canadensis L. Black Elder. Occasional.

Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench. Coralberry. Infrequent.

Viburnum acerifolium L. Maple-leaved Viburnum. Infrequent.

*Viburnum opulus L. Rare, cultivated.

Caryophyllaceae

*Arenaria serpyllifolia L. Thyme-leaved Sandwort. Occasional.

*Cerastium viscosum L. Mouse-eared Chickweed. Abundant.

*Dianthus barbatus L. Common Carnation. Rare, cultivated.

*Saponaria officinalis L. Bouncing Bet. Infrequent.

*Silene antirrhina L. Sleepy Catchfly. Infrequent.

Silene rotundifolia Nutt. Round-leaved Catchfly. Occasional.

Silene virginica L. Fire-pink. Occasional.

*Stellaria media (L.) Cyrillo. Common Chickweed. Abundant.

Stellaria pubera Michx. Star Chickweed. Abundant.

Celastraceae

*Celastrus orbiculatus L. Oriental Bittersweet. Occasional.

Euonymus americanus L. Strawberry Bush. Frequent.

*Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz. Wintercreeper. Frequent.

Chenopodiaceae

*Chenopodium album L. White Goose-foot. Occasional.

*Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Mexican Tea. Infrequent.

Clethraceae

Clethra acuminata Michx. Mountain White Alder. Occasional.

Clusiaceae

Hypericum densiflorum Pursh. Dense-flowered St. Johns-wort. Infrequent.

Hypericum mutilum L. Small-flowered St. Johns-wort. Occasional.

*Hypericum perforatum L. Common St. Johns-wort. Rare.

Hypericum punctatum Lam. Dotted St. Johns-wort. Occasional.

Hypericum stragulum Adams & Robson. St. Andrew’s-cross. Occasional.

Commelinaceae

*Commelina communis L. Asiatic Day-flower. Frequent.

Tradescantia subaspera Ker Gawler. Wide-leaved Spiderwort. Occasional.

Convolvulaceae

Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. Hedge-bindweed. Rare.

*Ipomoea coccinea L. Red Morning-glory. Rare.

Ipomoea lacunosa L. White Bindweed. Frequent.

Ipomoea panduarate (L.) G. Mey. Wild Potato Vine. Occasional.

*Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth. Common Morning-glory. Frequent.

Cornaceae

Cornus alternifolia L. f. Alternate-leaved Dogwood. Occasional.

Cornus amomum Mill. Knob-styled Dogwood.

Cornus florida L. Flowering Dogwood.

Cornus stolonifera Michx. Red-osier Dogwood. Rare.

Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. Black Gum. Abundant.

Crassulaceae

*Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. Yellow Stonecrop. Occasional, cultivated.

Sedum ternatum Michx. Wild Stonecrop. Abundant.

Cucurbitaceae

*Melothria pendula L. Creeping Cucumber. Rare.

Cyperaceae

Carex aff. abscondita Mack. Abundant.

Carex aggregata Mackenzie. Infrequent.

Carex albicans Willd. Rare.

Carex albursina Sheldon. Abundant.

Carex amphibola Steudel. Abundant.

Carex blanda Dewey. Abundant.

Carex cephalophora Willd. Head-like Sedge. Occasional.

Carex communis L.H. Bailey. Occasional.

Carex comosa F. Boott. Rare.

??? ?? Michx. Occasional.

??? ?? Willd. var. digitalis Abundant.

Carex frankii Kunth. Frank’s Sedge. Occasional.

Carex gracilescene Steudel. Occasional.

Carex gracillima Schwein. Occasional.

Carex hitchcockiana Dewey. Infrequent.

Carex laxiculmis Schwein. var. laxiculmis Occasional.

Carex laxiculmis Schwein. var. copulata (L.H. Bailey) Fern. Frequent.

Carex laxiflora Lam. var. laxiflora Abundant.

Carex lurida Wahl. Yellow-green Sedge. Frequent.

Carex normalis Mackenzie. Occasional.

Carex plantaginea Lam. Plantain-leaved Sedge. Occasional.

Carex prasina Wahl. Leek-green Sedge. Frequent.

Carex purpurifera Mackenzie. Infrequent.

Carex rosea Willd. Rose Sedge. Frequent.

Carex scoparia Schk. Occasional.

Carex sparganioides Muhl. var. sparganioides Infrequent.

Carex squarrosa L. Rare.

Carex stipata Muhl. Infrequent.

Carex striatula Michx. Rare.

Carex stricta Lam. Occasional.

Carex swanii (Fern.) Mackenzie.

Carex texensis (Torr.) Bailey. Occasional.

Carex torta Boott. Twisted Sedge. Frequent.

Carex tribuloides Wahlenb. Infrequent.

Carex virescens Muhl. Greenish-sedge. Occasional.

Carex vulpinoidea Michx. Fox Sedge. Frequent.

Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl. Redroot Flatsedge. Infrequent.

Cyperus flavescens L. Nutgrass. Occasional.

Cyperus strigosus L. Umbrella Sedge. Occasional.

Eleocharis ovata (Roth) Roemer & Schultes. Blunt-spikerush. Occasional.

Kyllinga pumila Michx. Low Kyllinga. Rare.

Rhynchospora capitellata (Michx.) Vahl. Beakrush. Frequent.

Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth. Woolgrass. Occasional.

Scripus polyphyllus Vahl. Many-leaved Bulrush. Frequent.

Scripus validus Vahl. Softstem-bulrush. Infrequent.

Diapensiaceae

Galax aphylla L. Galax. Frequent.

Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea batatas Decne. Cinnamon-vine. Occasional.

Dioscorea quaternata (Walt.) Gmel. Wild Yam. Frequent.

Ebenaceae

Diospyros virginiana L. Persimmon. Frequent.

Elaeagnaceae

*Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. Occasional.

Ericaceae

Epigaea repens L. Trailing Arbutus. Frequent.

Gaultheria procumbens L. Teaberry. Frequent.

Gaylussacia baccata (Wang.) K. Koch. Infrequent.

Kalmia latifolia L. Mountain Laurel. Abundant.

Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC. Sourweed. Abundant.

Rhododendron calendulaceum (Michx.) Torr. Flame-azalea. Infrequent.

Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. Rose Laurel. Frequent.

Rhododendron cumberlandiense E. L. Braun. Rare.

Rhododendron maximum L. White Laurel Occasional.

Vaccinium arboreum Marshall. Sparkleberry. Frequent.

Vaccinium corymbosum L. Highbush Blueberry. Frequent.

Vaccinium stamineum L. Deerberry. Frequent.

Euphorbiaceae

Acalypha gracilens Gray. Slender Three-seeded Mercury. Infrequent.

Acalypha rhomboidea Raf.  Common Three-seeded Mercury. Infrequent.

Acalypha virginica L. Virginia Copperleaf. Frequent.

Euphorbia corollata L. Flowering Spurge. Occasional.

Euphorbia maculata L. Prostrate Spurge. Frequent.

Euphorbia nutans Legasca. Spotted Spurge. Frequent.

*Phyllanthus caroliniensis Walter. Phyllanthus. Infrequent.

*Ricinus communis L. Castor-bean. Rare, cultivated.

Fabaceae

*Albizia julibrissin Durazz. Mimosa. Infrequent.

Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fern. Hog Peanut. Abundant.

Apios americana Medic. Ground-Nut. Occasional.

Cercis canadensis L. Eastern Redbud. Abundant.

Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench. Wild Sensitive Plant. Occasional.

Clitoria mariana L. Butterfly Pea. Rare.

*Coronilla varia L. Crown Vetch. Frequent.

Desmodium ciliare (Muhl.) DC. Hoary Tick-trefoil.

Desmodium glabellum (Michx.) DC. Sticktights. Occasional.

Desmodium lineatum DC. Matted Tick-trefoil. Rare.

Desmodium nudiflorum (L.) DC. Frequent.

Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC. Panicled Tick-trefoil. Frequent.

Gymnocladus dioica (L.) K. Koch. Kentucky Coffee-tree. Rare, planted.

*Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. Occasional.

*Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don. Sericea Lespedeza. Abundant.

Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem. Hairy Bushclover. Occasional.

Lespedeza intermedia (S. Wats.) Britton. Wand-lespedeza. Frequent.

Lespedeza procumbens Michx. Downy Trailing Lespedeza. Frequent.

*Lespedeza striata (Thunb.) H. & A. Japanese Clover. Abundant.

Lespedeza violacea (L.) Pers. Occasional.

*Lotus corniculatus L. Birdsfoot-trefoil. Infrequent.

*Medicago lupulina L. Black Medic. Frequent.

*Medicago sativa L. Alfalfa. Infrequent.

*Melilotus alba Desr. White Sweet Clover. Occasional.

*Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas. Yellow Sweet Clover.

*Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi. Kudzu. Occasional.

Robinia pseudoacacia L. Black Locust. Occasional.

*Trifolium campestre Schreb. Pinnate Hop-clover. Occasional.

??? ?bridum L. Alsike Clover. Occasional.

*Trifolium incarnatum L. Crimson Clover. Occasional, cultivated.

*Trifolium pratense L. Red Clover. Abundant.

*Trifolium repens L. Dutch White Clover. Abundant.

Vicia angustifolia L. Narrow-leaved Vetch. Occasional.

Vicia caroliniana Walt. Carolina Vetch. Occasional.

*Vicia sativa L. Common Vetch. Occasional.

*Vicia villosa Roth. Hairy Vetch. Frequent.

Fagaceae

Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. American Chestnut. Occasional.

Castanea mollissima Blume. Chinese Chestnut. Rare, planted.

Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. American Beech. Abundant.

Quercus alba L. White Oak. Abundant.

Quercus coccinea Muench. Scarlet Oak. Abundant.

Quercus prinus L. Chestnut Oak. Abundant.

Quercus rubra L. Northern Red Oak. Abundant.

Quercus velutina Lam. Black Oak. Abundant.

Fumariaceae

Dicentra canadensis (Goldie) Walp. Squirrel-corn. Abundant.

*Dicentra spectabilis Lem. Bleeding-heart. Rare, cultivated.

Gentianaceae

Gentiana decora Pollard. Appalachian Gentian. Rare.

Obolaria virginica L. Pennywort. Infrequent.

Sabatia angularis (L.) Pursh. Marsh-pink. Rare.

Geraniaceae

Geranium carolinianum L. Carolina Crane’s-bill. Frequent.

Geranium maculatum L. Wild Geranium. Abundant.

*Geranium molle L. Dove’s-foot Crane’s-bill. Occasional.

Hamamelidaceae

Hamamelis virginiana L. Witch-hazel. Occasional.

Liquidambar styraciflua L. Sweetgum. Infrequent.

Hipposcastanaceae

Aesculus flava Ait. Yellow Buckeye. Abundant.

Hydrangeaceae

Hydrangea arborescens L. Wild Hydrangea. Frequent.

Philadelphus pubescens Loisel. Ozark Mock-orange. Rare, planted.

Hydrophyllaceae

Hydrophyllum canadense L. Maple-leaved Waterleaf. Abundant.

Phacelia bipinnatifida Michx. Purple Phacelia. Frequent.

Iridaceae

*Crocus vernus Wulfen. Spring Crocus. Infrequent, cultivated.

*Gladiolus gandavensis Van Houtte. Gladiolus. Rare, cultivated.

*Gladiolus primulinus Baker. Rare, cultivated.

Iris cristata Ait. Dwarf-crested Iris. Abundant.

??? ?? ?? German Iris. Occasional, cultivated.

*Iris pseudacorus L. Yellow Water-flag. Infrequent, cultivated.

Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill. Blue-eyes Grass. Occasional.

Juglandaceae

Carya cordiformis (Wang.) K. Koch. Bitternut Hickory. Abundant.

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet. Pignut Hickory. Abundant.

Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loudon. Infrequent.

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch. Shagbark Hickory. Abundant.

Carya tomentosa Nutt. Occasional.

Juglans cinerea L. Butternut. Infrequent.

Juglans nigra L. Black Walnut. Occasional.

Juncaceae

Juncus acuminatus Michx. Sharp-pointed Rush. Frequent.

Juncus coriaceus Mackenzie. Rare.

Juncus effusus L. var. solutus Fern. & Wieg. Soft Rush. Frequent.

Juncus marginatus Rostk. Margined Rush. Occasional.

Juncus tenuis Willd. Path Rush. Abundant.

Luzula acuminata Raf. Sharp-pointed Wood-rush. Occasional.

Luzula echinata (Small) F.J. Herm. Common Wood-rush. Frequent.

Lamiaceae

*Ajuga reptans L. Carpet Bugle. Abundant.

*Glachoma hederacea L. Gill-over-the-Ground. Abundant.

Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers. American Pennyroyal. Rare.

*Lamium amplexicaule L. Henbit. Frequent.

*Lamium purpureum L. Purple Dead-nettle. Abundant.

Lycopus virginicus L. Virginia Bugleweed. Occasional.

Meehania cordata (L.) Britt. Meehania. Frequent.

?*Mentha xpiperita L. Peppermint. Occasional.

*Mentha spicata L. Spearmint. Infrequent.

Monarda clinopodia L. Basal Bee-balm. Frequent.

Monarda didyma L. Oswego-tea. Rare, cultivated.

*Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. Beefsteak Plant. Occasional.

*Prunella vulgaris L. Self Heal. Frequent.

Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoides (Leavenw.) Fern. Hoary Mt. Mint. Abundant.

Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) Durand & B.D. Jackson. Rare.

Salvia lyrata L. Wild Sage. Abundant.

*Salvia splendens Sello. Scarlet Sage. Infrequent, cultivated.

Scutellaria elliptica Muhl. Hairy Skullcap. Occasional.

Stachys nuttallii Shuttlew. Nuttall’s Hedge Nettle. Occasional.

Lauraceae

Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume. Spicebush. Abundant.

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees. Sassafras. Abundant.

Liliaceae

Aletris farinosa L. Colic-root. Occasional.

*Allium moly L. Rare, cultivated.

*Allium vineale L. Field-garlic. Occasional.

*Asparagus officinalis L. Asparagus. Infrequent.

?? ?? (L.) Gray. Devil’s Bit. Rare.

Clintonia umbellulata (Michx.) Morong. White Bead-lily. Rare.

*Convallaria majalis L. Lili-of-the-Valley. Occasional, cultivated.

Diosporum lanuginosum (Michx.) Nichols. Hairy Mandarin. Abundant.

Diosporum maculatum (Buckl.) Britt. Spotted Mandarin. Frequent.

Erythronium americanum Ker-Gawler. Yellow Trout-lily. Abundant.

*Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. Orange Day Lily. Occasional, cultivated.

*Hosta plantaginea Aschers. Fragrant Plantain-lily. Infrequent, cultivated.

Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Cov. Common Star-grass. Occasional.

Medeola virginiana L. Indian Cucumber Root. Occasional.

*Muscari armeniacum Leicht. Grape Hyacinth. Infrequent, cultivated.

*Narcissus poeticus L. Poet’s Narcissus. Occasional.

*Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. Daffodil. Occasional.

Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. Solomon’s-seal. Abundant.

Polygonatum commutatum (Schult.) A. Dietr. Occasional.

*Scilla sibirica Haw. Infrequent, cultivated.

Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf. False Solomon’s-seal. Abundant.

Trillium erectum L. Purple Wake Robin. Abundant.

Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb. Large White Trillium. Abundant.

*Tulipa gesneriana L. Late Tulip. Infrequent, cultivated.

Uvularia grandiflora J.E. Smith. Large-flowered Bellwort. Abundant.

Uvularia perfoliata L. Perfoliate Bellwort. Frequent.

Yucca filamentosa L. Adam’s Needle. Rare.

Linaceae

*Linum usitatissimum L. Flax. Rare, cultivated.

Linum striatum Walter. Ridgestem Yellow Flax. Frequent.

Linum virginianum L. Yellow Flax. Frequent.

Magnoliaceae

Liriodendron tulipifera L. Yellow Poplar. Abundant.

Magnolia acuminata L. Cucumber Magnolia. Occasional.

Magnolia fraseri Walt. Mountain Magnolia. Frequent.

Magnolia macrophylla Michx. Bigleaf Magnolia. Frequent.

Magnolia tripetala L. Umbrella Magnolia. Occasional.

Malvaceae

*Althaea rosea  L. Hollyhock. Infrequent, cultivated.

*Hibiscus syriacus L. Rose-of-Sharon. Occasional, planted.

*Malva neglecta Wallr. Common Mallow. Occasional.

*Malva sylvestris L. High Mallow. Rare.

*Sida spinosa L. Prickly Mallow. Frequent.

Menispermaceae

Menispermum canadense L. Canadian Moodseed. Infrequent.

Moraceae

Morus rubra L. Red Mulberry. Abundant.

Molluginaceae

*Mollugo verticillata L. Carpet-weed. Abundant.

Monotropaceae

?Monotropa hypopithys L. Pinesap. Rare.

?? ?? ?? Indian Pipe. Occasional.

Oleaceae

*Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl. Forsythia. Occasional, cultivated.

Fraxinus americana L. White Ash. Abundant.

*Syringa vulgaris L. Common Lilac. Infrequent, planted.

Onagraceae

Circaea lutetiana L. var. canadensis L. Enchanter’s Nightshade. Abundant.

Epilobium coloratum Biehler. Purple-leaved Willow Herb. Rare.

Ludwigia alternifolia L. Seedbox. Shell Creek. Occasional.

Lugwigia palustris (L.) Ell. Marsh Purslane. Rare.

Oenothera biennis L. Common Evening-primrose. Infrequent.

Oenothera speciosa Nutt. White Evening-primrose. Rare, cultivated.

Orchidaceae

Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl.) Torr. Putty-root. Rare.

Corallorhiza odontorhiza (Willd.) Nutt. Rare.

Cypripedium acaule Ait. Pink Lady’s Slipper. Occasional.

Cypripedium calceolus L. var. parviflorum (Salisb.) Fern. Rare.

Goodyera pubescens (Willd.) R. Br. Rattlesnake Plantain. Frequent.

Habenaria ciliaris (L.) R. Br. Yellow Fringed Orchid. Infrequent.

Habenaria clavellata (Michx.) Sprengel. Club-spur Orchid. Rare.

Liparis lilifolia (L.) Richard. Lily-leaved Twayblade. Infrequent.

Orchis spectabilis L. Snowy Orchis. Occasional.

Tipularia discolor (Pursh) Nutt. Cranefly Orchid. Occasional.

Orobanchaceae

Conopholis americana (L. f.) Wallr. Squawroot. Occasional.

Epifagus virginiana (L.) Bart. Beechdrops. Rare.

Orobanche uniflora L. Cancer-root. Rare.

Oxalidaceae

Oxalis dillenii Jacq. Southern Yellow Wood-sorrel. Abundant.

Oxalis stricta L. Yellow Wood-sorrel. Abundant.

Papaveraceae

*Papaver rhoeas L. Shirley-poppy. Rare, cultivated.

Sanguinaria canadensis L. Bloodroot. Frequent.

Stylophorum diphyllum (Michx.) Nutt. Celandine-poppy. Occasional.

Passifloraceae

Passiflora incarnata L. Maypops. Rare.

Passiflora lutea L. var. glabriflora Fern. Yellow Passion flower.

Phytolaccaceae

Phytolacca americana L. Pokeweed. Occasional.

Plantaginaceae

*Plantago lanceolata L. English Plantain. Abundant.

Plantago rugelii Decne. Rugel’s Plantain. Abundant.

Plantago virginica L. Dwarf Plantain. Occasional.

Plantanaceae

Plantanus occidentalis L. American Sycamore. Infrequent.

Poaceae

*Agrostis gigantea Roth. Redtop. Frequent.

Andropogon virginicus L. Broom-sedge. Occasional.

*Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Sweet Vernal Grass. Abundant.

Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb.) Beauv. Short-husked Grass. Frequent.

Bromus pubescens Muhl. Woodland Brome. Frequent.

Cinna arundinacea L. Wood Reed Grass. Occasional.

*Dactylis glomerata. L. Orchard Grass. Abundant.

Danthonia compressa Austin. Mountain Oatgrass. Abundant.

Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. ex Roemer & Schultesl. Poverty Oatgrass. Frequent.

*Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl. Abundant.

*Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. Barnyard Grass. Abundant.

*Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Abundant.

Elymus glabriflorus (Vasey) Scribn. & Ball. Smooth-fruited Wild Rye. Rare.

Elymus hystrix L. Bottlebrush Grass. Occasional.

Elymus virginicus L. Virginia Wild Rye. Frequent.

*Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski. Quack-grass. Infrequent.

*Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Link. Stinkgrass. Occasional.

*Eragrostis minor Host. Lesser Lovegrass. Rare.

Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees. Carolina Lovegrass. Frequent.

*Festuca elatior L. Tall Fescue. Abundant.

Festuca subverticillata (Pers.) E. Alexeev. Nodding Fescue. Abundant.

Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. Fowl-mannagrass. Frequent.

*Holcus lanatus L. Velvet Grass. Frequent.

Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. Rice Cutgrass. Abundant.

Leersia virginica Willd. White Grass. Frequent.

*Lolium perenne L. var. aristatum Willd. Annual Ryegrass. Occasional.

*Microstegium vimineum Trin. Eulalia. Abundant.

*Miscanthus sinensis Andersson. Eulalia. Infrequent, cultivated.

Muhlenbergia schreberi J.F. Gmel. Schreber’s Muhly. Occasional.

Muhlenbergia tenuifolia (H.B.K.) Kunth. Slender-flowered Muhly. Occasional.

Panicum anceps Michx. Flat-stemmed Panicum. Frequent.

Panicum bocscii Poir. Bosci’s Panicum. Frequent.

Panicum capillare L. Witch-grass. Frequent.

Panicum clandestinum L. Deer-tongued Panicum. Abundant.

Panicum commutatum Schultes. Occasional.

Panicum dichotomflorum Michx. Witchgrass. Occasional

Panicum dichotomum L. Bushy Panicum. Frequent.

Panicum flexile (Gattinger) Scribn. Wiry Witch Grass. Occasional.

Panicum lanuginosum Ell. Hairy Panic Grass. Frequent.

Panicum laxiflorum Lam. Lax Panicum. Frequent.

Panicum polyanthes Schultes. Many-flowered Panicum. Frequent.

Panicum rigidulum Nees. Red-topped Panicum. Frequent.

Paspalum laeve Michx. Smooth Beadgrass. Abundant.

*Phalaris arundinacea L. Reed Canary-grass. Infrequent.

Phalaris caroliniana Walter. Carolina Canary-grass. Rare.

*Phleum pratense L. Timothy. Frequent.

*Poa annua L. Speargrass. Abundant.

*Poa compressa L. Canada Bluegrass. Abundant.

*Poa pratensis L. Kentucky Bluegrass. Abundant.

Poa sylvestris A. Gray. Forest Bluegrass. Frequent.

Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash. Little Bluestem. Infrequent.

*Secale cereale L. Rye. Occasional, planted.

Setaria geniculata (Lam.) P. Beauv. Knotroot Foxtail-grass. Occasional.

*Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. Abundant.

*Setaria faberii Herrm. Nodding Foxtail. Abundant.

Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash. Indian Grass. Occasional.

Sphenopholis nitida (Biehler) Scribn. Wedge-grass. Occasional.

Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.) Scribn. var. major (Torr.) K.S. Erdman. Wedge-grass. Occasional.

Tridens flavus (L.) A. Hitchc. Purpletop. Frequent.

Polemoniaceae

Phlox divaricata L. Forest Phlox. Frequent.

Phlox glaberrima L. Smooth Phlox. Occasional.

Phlox maculata L. Meadow Phlox. Occasional.

Phlox nivalis Lodd. Piney-woods Phlox. Infrequent, planted.

Phlox paniculata L. Summer Phlox. Frequent.

Polygalaceae

Polygala senega L. Seneca Snakeroot. Occasional.

Polygonaceae

*Polygonum aviculare L. Common Knotweed. Occasional.

*Polygonum cespitosum Blume var. longisetum (De Bruyn) Stewart. Asiatic Water Pepper. Abundant.

*Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. Japanese Knotwood. Occasional.

Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. Mild Water-pepper. Frequent.

*Polygonum persicaria L. Lady’s Thumb. Frequent.

Polygonum sagittatum L. Arrow-leafed Tear Thumb. Abundant.

Polygonum scandens L. Occasional.

Polygonum virginianum L. Rat-tail. Frequent.

*Rumex acetosella L. Red Sheep-sorrel. Abundant.

*Rumex crispus L. Curly Dock. Frequent.

*Rumex obtusifolius L. Broad-leaved Dock. Frequent.

Portulacaeae

Claytonia caroliniana Michx. Carolina Spring Beauty. Abundant.

*Portulaca oleracea L. Common Purslane. Frequent.

Primulaceae

Lysimachia lanceolata Walt. Lance-leaved Loosestrife. Infrequent.

Lysimachia quadrifolia L. Whorled Loosestrife. Abundant.

Lysimachia tonsa L. Abundant.

*Primula veris L. English Cowslip. Rare, cultivated.

Pyrolaccae

Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh. Spotted Wintergreen. Frequent.

Ranunculaceae

Actaea alba (L.) Miller. White Baneberry. Frequent.

*Anemone alpina L. Alpine Anemone. Rare, cultivated.

Anemone quinquefolia L. Wood Anemone. Occasional.

Anemone virginiana L. Thimbleweed. Frequent.

Anemonella thalictroides (l.) Spach. Abundant.

Aquilegia canadensis L. Wild Columbine. Frequent.

Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. Black Cohosh. Abundant.

*Clematis jackmanii Moore. Jackman’s Clematis. Rare, cultivated.

Clematis virginiana L. Virgin’s Bower. Abundant.

Delphinium tricorne Michx. Dwarf Larkspur. Abundant.

Hepatica acutiloba DC. Sharp-lobed Hepatica. Abundant.

Hydrastis canadensis L. Golden-seal. Occasional.

*Paeonia anomala L. Peony. Infrequent, planted.

Ranunculus abortivus L. Kidney-leaved Buttercup. Frequent.

Ranunculus micranthus Nutt. Small-flowered Crowfoot. Frequent.

Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. Hooked Crowfoot. Frequent.

*Ranunculus repens L. Creeping Buttercup. Abundant.

Thalictrum dioicum L. Early Meadow-rue. Abundant.

Thalictrum pubescens Pursh. Tall Meadow-rue. Occasional.

Rosaceae

Agrimonia parviflora Ait. Southern Agrimony. Frequent.

Agrimonia rostellata Wallr. Woodland Agrimony. Frequent.

Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern. Serviceberry. Abundant.

Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott. Black Chokeberry. Infrequent.

Aruncus dioicus (Walt.) Fern. Occasional.

*Chaenomeles lagenaria Koidz. Japanese Quince. Infrequent, planted.

Crataegus phaneopyrum (L. f.) Medic. Washington-hawthorn. Rare, planted.

Fragaria virginiana Duchesne. Virginia Strawberry. Frequent.

Geum canadense Jacq. White Avens. Abundant.

Geum vernum (Raf.) T. & G. Spring Avens. Abundant.

*Kerria japonica (L.) DC. var. japonica. Japanese Rose. Infrequent, planted.

*Kerria japonica DC. var. pleniflora Witt. Japanese Rose. Rare, planted.

Potentilla canadensis L. Canada Cinquefoil. Frequent.

*Potentilla norvegica L. Strawberry-weed. Infrequent.

Potentilla simplex Michx. Common Cinquefoil. Abundant.

Prunus serotina Ehrh. Wild Black Cherry. Abundant.

*Pyrus communis L. Common Pear. Infrequent, planted.

*Pyrus malus L. Common Apple. Occasional, planted.

*Rosa multiflora Thunb. Multiflora Rose. Abundant.

Rosa setigera Michx. Climbing Prairie-rose. Occasional.

Rubus allegheniensis T.C. Porter. Common Blackberry. Abundant.

Rubus enslenii Tratt. Southern Dewberry. Frequent.

Rubus occidentalis L. Black Raspberry. Frequent.

Rubus odoratus L. Flowering Raspberry. Rare.

*Spiraea japonica L. Japanese Spiraea. Occasional, planted.

*Spiraea prunifolia Sieb. & Zucc. Bridal Wreath. Rare, planted.

Rubiaceae

Cephalanthus occidentalis L. Buttonbush. Frequent.

Diodia virginiana L. Large Buttonweed. Frequent.

*Galium aparine L. Cleavers. Abundant.

Galium circaezans Michx. Forest-bedstraw. Abundant.

Galium lanceolatum Torr. Wild Licorice. Infrequent.

Galium latifolium Michx. Wide-leaved Bedstraw. Infrequent.

Galium pilosum Aiton. Hairy Bedstraw. Frequent.

Galium triflorum Michx. Fragrant Bedstraw. Abundant.

Hedyotis canadensis (Willd.) Fosb. Infrequent.

Hedyotis nuttalliana Fosb. Narrow-leaved Houstonia. Frequent.

Mitchella repens L. Partridge-berry. Abundant.

*Sherardia arvensis L. Blue Field-madder. Frequent.

Salicaceae

*Salix babylonica L. Weeping Willow. Rare, planted.

Salix caroliniana Michx. Carolina-willow. Rare.

Salix nigra Marsh. Black Willow. Frequent.

Salix sericea Marsh. Silky Willow. Infrequent.

Santalaceae

Pyrularia pubera Michx. Buffalo-nut. Frequent.

Saxifragaceae

Chrysosplenium americanum Schwein. Golden Saxifrage. Rare.

Heuchera americana L. American Alumroot. Frequent.

Heuchera villosa Michx. Maple-leaved Alumroot. Abundant.

Mitella diphylla L. Miterwort. Abundant.

Penthorum sedoides L. Ditch-Stonecrop. Occasional.

Tiarella cordifolia L. Foam Flower. Abundant.

Scrophulariaceae

*Antirrhinum majus L. Common Snapdragon. Infrequent, cultivated.

Aureolaria laevigata (Raf.) Raf. Smooth Yellow Foxglove. Frequent.

Chelone glabra L. Turtlehead. Infrequent.

*Digitalis purpurea L. Common Foxglove. Infrequent, cultivated.

Lindernia dubia (L.) Pennell. False Pimpernel. Occasional.

Mimulus alatus Aiton. Sharpwing Monkey-flower. Occasional.

Mimulus ringens L. Monkey-flower. Occasional.

Pedicularis canadensis L. Wood Betony. Abundant.

*Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Steud. Chinese Empress Tree. Rare.

*Verbascum blattaria L. Moth Mullein. Infrequent.

*Verbascum thapsus L. Common Mullein. Occasional.

*Veronica arvensis L. Corn Speedwell. Abundant.

*Veronica hederaefolia L. Ivy-leaved Speedwell. Abundant.

*Veronica officinalis L. Common Speedwell. Abundant.

*Veronica peregrina L. Purslane Speedwell. Abundant.

*Veronica serpyllifolia L. Thyme-leaved Speedwell. Abundant.

Simaroubaceae

*Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle. Tree-of-Heaven. Occasional.

Smilacaceae

Smilax glauca Walt. Glaucous Greenbrier. Abundant.

Smilax hispida Muhl. Hispid Greenbrier. Frequent.

Smilax rotundifolia L. Common Greenbrier. Abundant.

Solanaceae

*Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. Apple-of-Peru. Occasional.

Physalis heterophylla Nees. Clammy Ground Cherry. Infrequent.

Solanum carolinense L. Bull Nettle. Abundant.

*Solanum nigrum L. Black Nightshade. Infrequent.

Solanum tuberosum L. Infrequent, cultivated.

Sparganiaceae

Sparganum americanum Nutt. American Bur-reed. Infrequent.

Tiliaceae

Tilia americana L. var. heterophylla (Vent.) Louden. White Basswood. Abundant.

Typhaceae

Typha latifolia L. Common Cat-tail. Abundant.

Ulmaceae

Ulmus rubra Muhl. Red Elm. Abundant.

Urticaceae

Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. False Nettle. Abundant.

Laportea canadensis (L.) Wedd. Wood Nettle. Abundant.

Parietaria pensylvanica Muhl. Pellitory. Occasional.

Pilea pumila (L.) Gray Clearweed. Abundant.

Valerianaceae

*Valeriana officinalis L. Garden-heliotrope. Rare, cultivated.

Verbenaceae

Phryma leptostachya L. Lopseed. Frequent.

Violaceae

Hybanthus concolor (T. Forester) Spreng. Green Violet. Abundant.

*Viola arvensis Murray. European Field-pansy. Rare.

Viola blanda Willd. Sweet White Violet. Abundant.

Viola canadensis L. Canade White Violet. Abundant.

Viola conspersa Reichb. American Dog Violet. Infrequent.

Viola cucullata Ait. Blue Marsh Violet. Frequent.

Viola hastata Michx. Spear-leaved Violet. Abundant.

Viola hirsutula Brainerd. Southern Woolly Violet. Frequent.

Viola palmata L. Palmate-leaved Violet. Occasional.

Viola pubescens Ait. Downy Yellow Violet. Abundant.

Viola rafinesquii Greene. Field Pansy. Rare.

Viola rostrata Pursh. Long-spurred Violet. Abundant.

Viola sororia Willd. Common Blue Violet. Abundant.

Viola striata Ait. Cream Violet. Occasional.

Viscaceae

Phoradendron leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & Johnst. American Mistletoe. Rare.

Vitaceae

Ampelopsis cordata Michx. Raccoon-grape. Abundant.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. Virginia Creeper. Frequent.

Vitis aestivalis Michx. Summer Grape. Occasional.

Xyridaceae

Xyris torta Sm. Yellow-eyed Grass. Rare.

 

[*] Nonindigenous or exotic taxon.